Thursday, 28 February 2013

U.S. professor finds longest prime number with 17,425,170 digits

After running 1,000 computers non-stop for 39 days to uncover the world's largest prime number yet, a Missouri college professor said this week he is starting all over to top his own record.

"It's a never-ending job," said Curtis Cooper, a computer science professor at the University of Central Missouri in Warrensburg. The computers are still running, although finding a higher prime number is estimated to take five to seven more years. Thousands of other computers in the United States are making the same search.

"This is my first love," Cooper, 60, said in an interview with Reuters. "It's pure mathematics. It's kind of an art form."

Cooper said he has received calls and emails from around the world after Wednesday's announcement that he had identified the prime number - which is a number that can only be divided by itself and 1. For example, 4 is not a prime number because it can be divided by itself, 1 and 2. Prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7 and on up to the giant figure Cooper and his computers discovered, which has 17,425,170 digits.

The new number is 2 multiplied by itself 57,885,161 times, minus 1. A single campus computer, labeled #22, found the number on January 25, but it had to be verified by the prime number locator project known as GIMPS - the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search.

The term "Mersenne" refers to the rarest prime numbers, only 48 in all, that have ever been discovered. GIMPS has discovered the last 14 of them.

Working with the GIMPS system, Cooper and Central Missouri chemistry professor Steven Boone discovered two earlier record prime numbers, in 2005 and 2006. Their newest prime number is the largest discovered since 2008, at the University of California-Los Angeles. It beat the UCLA number by some 5 million digits.

Having the record prime number discovered three times at Central Missouri, a state college with about 11,000 students, is a source of great pride, said Mike Greife, the school's news bureau director. "It's kind of mind-boggling," Greife said of the search process.

Cooper said his earlier successes finding the highest prime number motivated him to keep trying. He said he spent at least two hours a day "baby-sitting" the college computers to make sure everything was operating properly. The search software runs in the background while the computers carry out other functions.

Cooper said prime numbers are mostly of interest to mathematicians, but the search has some practical uses. For one thing, it shows how computers can be used together on such a project, he said.

Prime numbers also have been used in Web applications to encrypt messages because they are so rare. Those numbers, though, have a mere 100 to 200 digits, Cooper said.

Tuesday, 26 February 2013


This is a rare meteorological phenomenon called a skypunch. When people see these, they think it’s the end of the world. Ice crystals form above the high-altitude cirro-cumulo-stratus clouds, then fall downward, punching a hole in the cloud cover.

Sunday, 24 February 2013


Twice a year the sun perfectly lines up with the streets of New York, creating a phenomenon known as Manhattanhenge.

Friday, 22 February 2013

Panasonic produced the most efficient solar battery

Most efficient in the world solar battery was developed by experts from the Japanese company Panasonic. The mission of the company today announced that the maximum coefficient of photoelectric conversion Battery is 24.7%.

Just 98 micrometers thick, it has become the world's most efficient solar battery based on crystalline silicon. The previous record (23.9%) was also achieved company Panasonic.

The company emphasized that due to the small dimensions of the production losses of such batteries is much lower than similar products.

Wednesday, 20 February 2013

Spray it with this spray when it's raining, and you will not get wet

Product "Ever Ultra Dry" is a coat that nanotechnology can be sprayed on a variety of surfaces, including your shoes, jacket, pants, anything you want (not just a hand, because it is a powerful superhidrofobik) and not get wet.

Although this is a promotional ad is so powerful that we can not make ourselves do not, especially if you take into consideration that we are in the middle of February and the rainy season is upon us (probably) at least partially rainy spring.

The price of this product ranges from 57.95 dollars to 100.95 dollars, depending on what power you can afford.

Monday, 18 February 2013

This screen is the future!

Taktus company, has developed a touch-sensitive screen with keypads. This additional keyboard "pops" out of the screen and allows typing as the classical hardware keyboards.

The U.S. company has Taktus solution which will incorporate touch screens and keyboards. On Mašableu say that this screen allows users to quickly and knock on other phones without the "touchscreen".

When the keyboard off and becomes invisible screen becomes like any other that is sensitive to touch.


Saturday, 16 February 2013

New Age - antropocen

n earlier times our planet evolved by itself. Today, people affect the natural process. Scientists say a new geological epoch shaped by people - and they call it antropocen.

Our perception of nature has been overcome. Nature, which is contrary to human culture, and that is itself evolving, this nature does not exist. At least, say scientists who speak of the existence of a new geological epoch - antropocen. Reinhold Lajnfelder geologist with the Free University of Berlin, said: "We have different nature and man, the most evil man with his technique. But in the meantime changed the nature of man so much, that we have to say that piroda, as we define it once, do not there. "

How man is changing the Earth?

Man and Nature are one, and scientists now believe it to provide convincing arguments: We humans have reshaped today 75 percent of the Earth's solid surface, says Reinhold Lajnfelder. "We are changing the earth through agriculture and mining - are now 30 times more material is transferred from one place to another than would be transmitted by natural processes. Extinction rate of animals is one hundred, some say, a thousand times greater than those in the natural process . "

A new era began with industrialization

In the future we will have the remains of geological layers of our domestic animals, house plants and plastic particles. And by the layers of the earth geologists can determine the beginnings of certain ages. The youngest epoch of the Holocene. She began 11,000 years ago, after the last ice age. Now it is replaced antropocen. Some scientists believe that this is a new era began thousands of years ago, with the advent of agriculture. But first farmers were not able to change the planet. Most agree that a new era began later with industrialization in the 18th century.

Scientist Jürgen Ren says: "We still feel the atmosphere, but also geology layers, caused by changes of the late 18th and early 19th century."

In addition to the impact of man on nature stronger. Yet forgiveness of industrial society is not a solution. In antropocenu a man with his technique as being part of nature. A discussion of antropocenu is primarily aimed at raising the awareness of people to live in a time in organizing themselves and that we have to do it responsibly.

Tuesday, 12 February 2013

Fossil from Serbia sheds new light on human evolution

New data on the discovery of fossils of human jaw fragment, which was found in a cave in Little Balanica Serbia, published in the prestigious scientific journal "PLoS One", announced today the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade.
This discovery represents the oldest human ancestors find in this part of Europe, and the article published by William Jack Rink of McMaster University in Canada and an international team led by Dusan Mihailovic with the Faculty of Philosophy and Mirjana Roksandić the University of Winnipeg (Canada).
It has been found, according to Rink, the fossil was at least 397,000 years, and that is probably older than 525,000 years, and found the oldest Eastern jaw fossil hominids
Mihajlovic said that the South-East Europe is very important for understanding human evolution.
"Hello dated by the fossils from this period are very rare, and we found that this is in many ways unique. Obtained dates pushing the boundaries in the study of human evolution. Studies have shown that the Balkans represented a" gate of Europe "and was one of three refugial areas where people, plants and animals found refuge during the glacial period. inspires us all to continue the excavations, "he said.
Roksandić noted that at that time in Western Europe, human ancestors began to incorporate Neandertal features, which do not appear in this report.
"Scientists believe that the development of Neanderthal traits brought about by the Western European population in glacial periods were isolated. Contrast, Southeastern Europe has never been isolated from Asia and Africa, and the human impact on the evolution of an entirely different factors. Balkan Peninsula by apparently belonged to the home area from which the human community
re-colonize Europe after the retreat of glaciers. Fossil is committed to the species Homo erectus, "she explained.
On the dating of the fossils were engaged anthropologists, archaeologists and physicists from Serbia, Canada, Great Britain and France.
Jaw was found 2006th , and dating was carried out at the University of Bordeaux, in the laboratory of Dr. Rink, McMaster University nuclear reactor and research center geotop University of Quebec at Montreal, and the analysis of sediment carried to Oxford Brookes University in the UK.
Archaeological excavations of Large and Small Balanice lasting from 2004. year, and funded by the Ministry of Culture and Information of Serbia.
Since 2010. as part of the excavation is organizing an international summer school, which is implemented by the Faculty of Philosophy and the University of Winnipeg.

Sunday, 10 February 2013

In the brain there is a center for evil

Dr. Gerhard Roth, one of the leading German neurologist, says that in the brain there is a special center for evil. In fact, after years of study a team of researchers led by Roth came to the information that is in the central lobe of the brain murderers, rapists and robbers is a special section where true evil lies, and that the X-rays look like a black mass.

Roth spent years investigating the behavior of inmates who were in prison for the most serious crimes and misdemeanors.

"It showed that people have some short films for the time measured their brain waves. Noticed that we are all in the brutal and violent scenes they did not show any emotion. Addition, the part of the brain responsible for empathy and sadness is not nothing happened. When we later recorded their brain, appeared dark mass in the center of the body of all offenders convicted of the most serious crimes, "explained neuroscientist.

According to him, research led him to the belief that some criminals are genetically predisposed to be as they are.

"When we looked at the brains of serious offenders, we found that in each of them there is a defect or deformity of the anterior, central part of the body. Addition, there are also cases of people who had a tumor in that area became criminals, and that the returned to normal after removing it, "said Roth.

However, the doctor said that, regardless of changes in the anterior part of the brain in some people, it does not necessarily mean that it will automatically become criminal.

Adolf Hitler 1889 - 1945. Responsible for the deaths of 17 million people, Joseph Stalin 1878 - 1953. Responsible for the deaths of 9 million people, Adolf Hitler 1889 - 1945. Responsible for the deaths of 17 million people, Joseph Stalin 1878 - 1953. Responsible for the deaths of 9 million people.

Saturday, 9 February 2013

Mathematical record: the longest prime number found

A group of American researchers managed to find the longest prime number, which consists of 17 million digits. Prime numbers are all integers divisible without remainder only with the number 1 and with themselves, and one more than the number, such as 3, 5, 7, 11 ..

Curtis Cooper and his team from the University of Missouri have been able to come up with numbers that contain 17,425,170 digits, which on paper is more than 4,000 printed pages of A4.

By this result the researchers came to the aid techniques to study Mersen primes. It took 40 days of computing, using 360,000 processors, in order to reach a new record.

This research enables the development of practical applications, especially in cryptography.

Cooper and his team, in addition to pure science, motivated by the premium of $ 3,000 for the project by the systematic study Marsen numbers (GIMPS) is assigned to one such discovery.

Foundation for electronic border (EFF, an international nonprofit organization for the defense of human rights and freedoms in the digital form) has announced it will reward you with a $ 150,000 finding the sheer number of more than 100 million digits, and the simple discovery of $ 250,000 in the number of more than a billion digits .

Thursday, 7 February 2013

In Davos discussed the immortality and aliens

In addition to the traditional economic issues on the agenda of the World Economic Forum in Davos, found the discussion of such topics as the uncontrolled use of genetic engineering technology, medical intervention in the human brain, artificial prolongation of human life, the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. Discussions H-factor were prepared with the support list Nature (Nature) and more looked like science fiction scenario.
According to scientists, in the near future mankind will receive medications that will be able to
super ability's devices which were issued in humans. Now that scientists are working on drugs against diseases such as Alzheimer's and schizophrenia, it is likely that it will occur in the future preparations for stimulating brain activity for ordinary people. Now there are already psycho stimulatory Ritalin and modafinil, which take active cognitive brain activity. Although these products are made exclusively for people with mental illness can not be ruled out that they will not use the healthy people to better remember information and showed high results at work or at school.
Super ability's human development is possible with the help of high-tech electronic devices. Experiments have shown that the brain function and memory can be improved by electronic transmitters inserted into the body. But this method is the most technologically complex and unlikely to be available to the common man, as opposed to medical products. However, scientists believe that in ten years neurobiology can break out to a new level and intracerebral electronic transmitters and sensors will be widespread. However, is it ethical to divide society into those who can afford to improve the functioning of the brain, and those who can not? Should be similar preparations commercially available and whether it is necessary legislative base.The great risk is that it will be used to develop similar covetous purposes. Acting on neurotransmitter system of the brain, they not only increase the human memory and take active brain function, but also affecting the mental state of the man. Make it subject to the control and programming for specific tasks. In addition, the same technology allows memory to be erased, which can cause brain damage activity.
Another theme of Davos are increasing problems due to increasing life expectancy. New medical development enabled it to extend the life of man by 35%. That's good, but it's followed by financial costs of social payments and overcrowding the planet. Experts believe that the only solution to long-lived euthanasia. By the way thanks to the development of medicine and even the weakest sickest people can live 90-100 years, which contradicts the law of nature, where the strongest survive.
The most problematic issue is the discussion of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. Many world leaders have repeatedly made statements about the existence of aliens. So in December 2012. The Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in an interview with reporters joked: How aliens among us will not say, because it can cause a panic.
Experts agree that the Forum will conquer the cosmos humanity has extraterrestrial civilizations and discover the inhabited planets. They call on humanity to prepare for an encounter with aliens, and to assess the potential hazards. It also appears the necessity of forming special services for finding extraterrestrial civilizations that will help to prevent the threat from space.
In doing so, experts agree that even if the alien mind is found, it will not significantly change a person's life. Yet in the long run will change the psychological and philosophical consciousness of man. Because the discovery of life on another planet will contribute to conclusions about the possible existence of life in the universe. And that, in turn, undermine the basics of philosophy and religion, they Forums.

Tuesday, 5 February 2013

EU separates two billion euros for innovation

The European Commission will finance the project with partners to map the human brain and study material on "a hundred times stronger than steel."

Examination of the human brain research and outstanding characteristics of the new material Gräfin, the projects that won the European competition for funding science and each will receive one billion euros over the next 10 years, announced yesterday by the European Commission on its website.
Studies on Gräfin and mapping of the human brain have been selected in the competition which attracted 26 research proposals to the shortlist of four entered. With this announcement, the EU wants to help science on the continent to develop further.
"The 'human brain' will work to create a model of the human brain most
accurate  so far, efforts to develop and treatment of neurological diseases," said European Commission Vice-President Neelie Kroes.
Scientists gathered around the aforementioned studies used computer programs that detail the human brain studied carefully, and then make his model. The goal is to mimic the real function of the brain. As some of the researchers explained earlier, it is essential that the project is publicly funded, because computer companies and pharmaceutical giants would not be financially supported. The study brings together scientists from 87 universities and institutes.
The second project will investigate the properties of Grafina, and
super light super thin of carbon materials which explain the scientists, conducts electricity better than copper and is a hundred times stronger than steel. Is destined to be an important application in information technology. Partners in the scientific enterprise and the researchers at Cambridge, as well as experts "Nokia".
The European Commission will only partially invested in these projects, because, as the AP reports, most of the money provided by the Member States and other donors, including a company, institutes and universities.
She explained that Nellie Kroes, the aim of this fund is to "keep Europe competitive and preserve the home as excellence in science."
When it comes to innovation, the EU lags behind the U.S., and it says "New York Times", Europe is losing scientific race with Japan and South Korea, while China is rapidly catching up.

A computer that provides a natural disaster left without financial support

Scientists gathered around the project "Futurama Ai-Si-Ti" disappointed news from Brussels, because their proposal did not pass in the contest. They intend to create a supercomputer that would be able to predict natural disasters. Although he had great support from the other side of the Atlantic, "Future Ai-Si-Ti" is still left short of money. Comments from some supporters of the project are that the EU decision "shocking" and "crazy."

Sunday, 3 February 2013

Video of the star that was dying 58 years

In front of you is a clip that shows the end of GK stars Perseus, which in 1901. became a supernova explosion and which lasted for 58 years.

As GK Perseus away from Earth 1300 light years away, a picture of his blast has reached us after a long time due to curved space-time universe. This explosion was recorded Optical Nordic telescope in Spain.

The recording was made ​​in a 3D model.

See what it's like dying star!

Friday, 1 February 2013

Part of the cosmos after 300 million years?

Metal rack and pinion steering, pressed the corner and found the resident of Vladivostok when he lit the fireplace. Unusual invention claimed is coastal scientists. After careful study of the case, the researchers found that the invention is 300 million years old and that she has made a living being. But scientists can not answer the questions who made the rail.
Strange artifact in coal, which is the case in our time is not far from lonely. All these odd findings lead scientists in a dead end, since the almighty undermine the fundamental concepts of modern science. The first was found in Massachusetts 1851st in the U.S., while coal mining. Vase of silver and zinc in coal is dated Kembridžskim period, which began 500 million years ago. 1912th in Oklahoma was found in an iron kettle coal 312 million years old. 1974th The unknown is found in the aluminum part of the mine in Romania. Part looks like a hammer or support leg for landing Apollo cosmic machine that could make a man fall after the Jurassic period.
Recent artifact from Vladivostok again forced scientists to imagine. Where coal was found strange part was brought to the southern end of Hakasije from Černogorskog region. Known age of this coal is 300 million years old. That's why scientists have assumed that the metal details should be the same age as the coal.
When geologists carefully broke a piece of coal, they found an easy and smooth length of 7 inches, made of aluminum alloys (98%) and magnium (2%). On the one hand, pure aluminum is extremely rare in nature, because scientists have guessed that a part is made artificially. On the other, an unusual alloy parts has enabled scientists to explain the preservation of objects. Aluminum clean the patina covers stable oxide, which hinders further corrosion. At the end of the 98-percentage-alloy aluminum endure high pressure, extreme temperatures and aggressive environment.
Scientists have wondered not aluminum cosmic origin. Thanks to the study of meteorites, science knows of the existence of extraterrestrial aluminum-26, which decays on the 26th magnium The presence of 2% in the alloy magnium and just can not testify about the origin of cosmic objects. But in order to confirm this hypothesis needs to perform a number of additional research.
The last thing the surprised scientists is an unusual case similarity with modern notched poles. It is difficult to assume that nature could make a case with 6 teeth regular and equal intervals between them. In addition Anime interval between the teeth was very wide in relation to the teeth. Veroatno this boom was part of a complex mechanism. Similar parts are used in modern microscopical and other devices. The question arises as to how such a complex part that could make a man millions of years ago?
When the invention became known, began to talk about UFOs belong rack and pinion steering. But Russian scientists are not rushing to make loud statements, before opting for additional research subjects.