Monday, 14 November 2011

Monster Black Hole Eats Worlds

A new study claims a supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy is ripping apart entire worlds on a daily basis.

The research by scientists led by Dr Kastytis Zubovas from the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom, explains why Sagittarius A, a giant black hole 26,000 light-years from Earth, flares up in spectacular daily displays of x-rays and infrared radiation.

Writing on the pre-press website, Zubovas and colleagues propose Sagittarius A, which is 4,000,000 times the mass of the Sun, is destroying planets and asteroids that have formed in a torus of dust and gas around the black hole.

They claim these clouds are a mixture of primordial chemicals and the remains of stars that have already been shredded by the black hole.

That's a similar environment to the protoplanetary disks around stars in which planets form.
Black hole solar systems

This hypothesis has raised the possibility that planetary systems could be evolving around the Milky Way's central black hole in the same way that they would around a star.

Michele Bannister, a graduate student in planetary astronomy at the Australian National University's Mt Stromlo Observatory, says it is plausible that planets can form on the edge of a black hole.

"While the galactic centre is an incredibly energetic environment, planets are very resilient and so could form there," says Bannister.

She says the daily eruption of x-rays and infrared radiation provides clues about the numbers of asteroids, comets and planets likely to exist close to the galactic centre.
Planetary death

While this region may be conducive to the formation of planets and asteroids, Zubovas and colleagues point out that it's also an area where these bodies are destroyed as they move too close to the central black hole.

When this happens, a burst of x-rays and infrared radiation a hundred times greater than normal background energy is detected coming from Sagittarius A, they report.

But the radiation released as the planets and asteroids are destroyed is just a tiny fraction of the levels released when a star falls into the black hole, an event which is estimated to happen once every 100,000 years.

Associate Professor Alistair Graham from Melbourne's Swinburne University says scientitsts have only recently been able to understand how stars and planets can form in hostile environments near supermassive black holes.

"Most, if not all galaxies are thought to have supermassive black holes at their centers."

"The huge bursts of energy and particles beaming out from these gravity wells as stars are torn apart, couldn't explain the small scale x-ray and infrared flares seen daily from Sagittarius A", says Graham.

"However this energy output does match the levels expected from an in falling asteroid or planet."

Sunday, 13 November 2011

The most beautiful footage of the Earth from outer space!

The crew of the International Space Station has enabled the "Earthlings" to enjoy the sights of their planet in a way that has not been seen.

This is how our planet looks from the height of 460.2 kilometers.
Beautiful shots of the International Space Station

The video, made with the International Space Station, published by the U.S. Agency for Space Studies (NASA).

Made him the 29th crew mission as they traveled around the planet at a speed of 27,300 kilometers per hour.

Pay attention to the few passing storms. They can be recognized by the lightning that just boosted the effectiveness of this amazing footage.

From Alaska, the phenomenon of aurora borealis illuminated (North Aurora), via Cuba, the Atlantic, around the camera has captured the holy city in Britain, a Pakistani city of Lahore, India's capital New Delhi, the Caspian basin space and much more.

Saturday, 12 November 2011

Google gives millions for research on the internet

Google will fund extensive research on the relationship between society and the Internet. Costs were 4.5 million, and research is conducted at the Berlin University. The questions are - how the Internet shapes the real and social space?

Many Germans are not willing to make their photos dawned on the Internet - for example, in Google's Street vjuu showing the streets of cities around the world. Due to these facts the American giant had a problem to provide this service in Germany. So far funded a major study in which we need to show the many layers of people over the internet.

"We want to understand how the Internet is changing our world, and in Berlin we can to investigate multi-disciplinary," said Ingolf Pernis, one of the founders of the Internet Institute at the University of Berlin.

The questions to be answered are yet to be formulated in detail, but it is clear that it will treat its influence on the formation of public sphere, political mobilization and copyright protection. That is why the team of researchers renowned political scientists, sociologists and lawyers.

The university claims that Google has not exercised any pressure and will be independent research. Experts estimate that the company has invested millions in this study partly in order to obtain positive headlines in the newspapers a few days. After all, Google has earned in the last quarter almost $ 3 billion, and an investment of several million of them and not great.

Friday, 11 November 2011

We will soon send scented messages over the Internet

Designers of "Mint Digital" developed a conceptual device "Oli" ("Olly"), whose work is based on the creation of fragrances that will be exchanged via the Internet.

Specifically, the device encrypts the smell in a special message and thus the internet that allows the user receives a message that the fragrance determine its contents.

The creators of the device "Oli" the practical application of his that can be usable when sending email messages, subscription to RSS feeds, a message on Twitter or Facebook, etc. ...

Customers will be able to choose in advance the type of smell for certain types of Internet traffic, which in turn will increase the cost of the device.

Thursday, 10 November 2011

Hard choice between the Moon and Jupiter

Roskosmos and European cosmic agency and the possibilities of strategic partnerships in the study of the solar system. Is considered as a variant of a common mission to Jupiter, probably with a landing on its satellite Europa. The other option is to win a robotic Moon base editing. The choice side will be known in late November, when the present plan of the program.
Both options have positive and negative sides. Moon has been actively studied for several decades. Mission to the Moon is cheaper.
About Jupiter and the surrounding area is much less known. From Earth it is not well seen, however, it will let the last 6 years.
The first detailed images of Jupiter obtained by the 1970th The apparatus of the American pioneer. A much larger contribution to knowledge on this planet has given NASA's Galileo station, which was launched into orbit and worked there during the 8 years. Then, the station received orders to fly directly to Jupiter, and is burned in its atmosphere. This was the 2003rd year. Scientists feared that Galileo will sooner or later fall to Europe - the second large distances from Jupiter Satellite, in its scope similar to the Moon and terrestrial bacteria will multiply uncontrollably there.
Why are scientists worried about Europe? The whole surface of the satellite covers the ice, under which there may be a water layer of the ocean - the appropriate environment for primitive life. Today was a lot of data collected on this satellite, the interest towards him increases, - said the deputy director of the Institute of cosmic research Oleg Korabljov RAN.
The global ocean, if any, direct contact with the mineral shell satellites, creating a kind of broth. That there would be a chance for the development of living forms, are the various elements needed - water must be clean. At this stage of research does not suggest a risk moving the camera in Europe. Land on the surface of the radio signal broadcast from there would be a great achievement.
According to the scientists, the device for landing, which could be launched by satellite to Europe, will be strictly sterilized. Surface ice is probably not suitable for finding life - similar to a sterile surface of Antarctica. It is hardly possible to drill icebergs to research broth if it contains bacteria. At slimmest point Deblin ice may make a few hundred meters. As for landing, it is not a problem - in Russia is an established technology of such devices, - says Oleg Korabljov.
Is it necessary that the device will soon be clear, be clear and the range of his scientific duties, in case if Russia and the Europeans choose to Jupiter mission.

Wednesday, 9 November 2011

Nanotechnology discovers who is prone to myocardial

In industrialized countries, every other man died of a heart attack or stroke. By now it was impossible to make predictions about individual who is more to experience a heart attack. That could soon change.

Healthy blood vessels are smooth on the inside. Blood cells are not nice for them. So easy to transport oxygen to the muscles where it was needed. Until there is some inflammation, it works just fine. Inflammation in fact result in blood vessel walls. It is a matrix protein-Metaloprotezen (MMP)

MMP then causes damage to the original smooth wall of blood vessels. Through the damage to white blood cells called leukocytes, penetrate the cell walls, where grade calcification, atherosclerotic plaque and so begins a vicious cycle, says Michael Šefers the University Clinic in Münster:

"Through the infection more white blood cells, penetrate the blood vessel wall and plaque becomes thicker. This causes muscle cells to the infected area of ​​building some sort of vault. Then MMP erode the vault. Then he could burst blood vessel in that place, which would shut down the court and cause a heart attack. When this happens the blood vessel supplying the brain, a stroke occurs. "

A view inside the patient

For forecasts in turn, is likely a heart attack and stroke, it is not enough to know how to feed a man, if he moves, how hard, and whether smoking. Doctors need to know if dangerous inflammation in blood vessels. And to have to look inside the patient's body.

Already, doctors can be sure to identify the patient's body. For example, when a patient injects a special liquid, blood vessels in the CT-scanner to become visible. This device is a true three-dimensional X-ray picture that shows the blood vessels that, due to ubrizganoj liquids, become visible. If there is inflammation or narrowing of blood vessels, doctors to be easily identified.

Nanotechnology offers the possibility of earlier diagnosed Nanotechnology offers the possibility of earlier diagnosis, "The problem that we have on this occasion is that we do not see the blood vessel, where the anomaly occurred, where the disease, ie. inflammation of. We see the only means that the real contrast in the courts. In the meantime, we come to know that heart attacks occur in areas where the narrowing of the very small or non-existent, "explains Dr. Šefers.

Calcified parts of the blood vessels are visible on the CT-scanner, because the thicker the blood cells, but even those not sure indicator that there will be a heart attack, "there may be calcified deposits and 20 years after the inflammation, but inflammation is no longer active. It is not enough just to know if there has been a narrowing of a blood vessel or calcified plaque. "

Successful tests on mice

The solution offers nanotechnology. Researchers have been able to build molecules that bind to proteins cause infection. These molecules are called "inventors" (Tracer), as this inflammation becomes visible on the CT-scanner, "the inventor or 'tracer' mixed with radioactive or floroscentnim colors, and then thanks to the light or radioactivity can be measured. That's easy to see the molecular composition of individual organs. "

The scientists in experiments on mice were able to form three-dimensional images arteriosclerosis inflammation. If they succeeded in applying this technique in humans, we could predict for each patient's particular risk of heart attack.

"Also when we see that the amount of MMP exist, we can say: The man who is present in greater quantities of MMP, there is a higher risk of heart attack, the man with whom there is less MMP, the smaller the risk. Then we can define separately for each individual to say: You need more intensive therapy, and you do not, "said Dr. Šefers.

Early diagnosis and other diseases

This technique offers opportunities for diagnostics and other diseases, in which early identification is crucial for successful treatment, said Dr. Andreas Jordan, a pioneer in the clinical utility of nanotechnology. For example in the case of cancer and multiple sclerosis, inflammation of the central nervous system, the treatment is effective only when early detection otherwise paralysis leading to death.

"Basically, it takes us in the following way: if something we can discover when we discover early on that such a disease, we can develop specific therapeutic values ​​and concept," explains Andreas Jordan.

Tuesday, 8 November 2011

The wars for women and because women

Mankind is faced with a "concern masculinization", with a growing surplus of men. What is correct: the war for women or war because women?

Both, because they are less and less. For a few years men will be in some Asian countries engage in wars for acquiring life companion.

Who (above) wins, it girl!

Are we to puzzle and seductive history once again draws attention to its unsolved repetition?

In India, the biggest deficiency: 160 million souls of women! Will the second most populous nation on the planet go into
conquest other countries and bringing the men chosen for their subjects?

When he refused, served the cunning: they were invited to the annual feast in honor of the god Neptune, and the signal by the Romans seized the girls entrants.

The plague of abortion
Kristof Gijmoto who follows developments in relation to population has recently been re-warned of the threat "worrying masculinization" of countries like India and China, especially due to the interference of parents and relatives in the future sex of the newborn. How? As soon learn that to be born a girl, resort to abortion.
Some demographers believe that the lack of adult women in the next five decades as a cause pervasive effects of which I have the climatic fluctuations. Existing data are frightening.
Nature has established a kind of "sexual seesaw", where men predominate slightly: for every 100 female births are born every year 104-106 men. Any noticeable departure from such a balance can only be interpreted as unnatural causes.
In China, the most outstanding discrepancy: 120 men versus 100 women, and in some areas is the first for ten more. The same phenomenon is rapidly spreading to other parts of the world, such as Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia - 115 in 100 In Vietnam, the somewhat milder - 112 to 100
The new scourge of humanity in 1990. said the Indian Nobel Laureate for Economics Amartya Sen in today's famous book, "More than 100 million women are missing." In the meantime, the backlog has increased to 160 million in India. So much, in fact, the unborn souls of women excluded from life. Why?
Prevailing three factors: a love of a centuries old sons, the decline of fertility and, perhaps most important, involvement in sex selection due to modern technology and tools. In India alone, according to the respected scientific journal "The Lancet", aborted every year around half a million female embryos!
Living with multiple husbands
Even if in the coming ten years the ratio of the sexes back into a natural routine, the men would be faced with a shortage of women for marriage. Only later will not go before the registrar, but shall increase the brotherhood bachelors.
Some foresee a growth in the number of women with multiple husbands (polyandry) and tourist trips to satisfy sexual instincts, the other much darker indicate prediction that communities with excess males stir up some kind of sexual wars. Which will come to pass?
Particularly alarming is the warning sounded two political scientists, Valerie Hudson and Andrea den Bera, who wrote several years ago that Asian countries with excess male heads threaten the West. In concluding writes that such societies can only be managed in an authoritarian manner, suppressing the violence inside and transferring it outside its borders.
Mara Hvistendal in "unnatural selection" represents a different view, pointing out that the previously unfounded. India is, in fact, put a deep democratic roots, despite the gender imbalance. In any case, she says, a society in which men outnumbered are not "pleasant place to live." They are often volatile, sometimes violent.
Although the deliberate abortion banned in China and India, is incredibly difficult to enforce.
There is no "silver bullet", says Christoph Gijmoto, who believes that the most urgent make sure that the appearance of properly presented, especially in developing countries.
If sex selection of the future be identified with cancer, prejudices about women's cigarettes, and ultrasound and abortion of matches. Nowadays, however, must not neglect the women's rights, including the free will of each individual to end an unwanted pregnancy.
Can nature (evolution) to offer itself out?

Saturday, 5 November 2011

Supercomputer "K" broke his own record

Japanese supercomputer "K", which is produced by "Fujitsu", broke his own record in the first place, reaching 10 petaflops.

Japanese supercomputer "K", which is produced by "Fujitsu", broke his own record in the first place, reaching 10 petaflops (a thousand trillion - ten to fifteen - operations per second), reported today the French broadcasters.

Although not completed, "the Japanese" was in June, the list of 500 fastest computers, took first place before that held the Chinese "Tjanhe-1A" with an output of 8.1 petaflops.

Japanese "K" is now fully operational, with more than 88,000 processors each with eight cores, and it was announced that will be used in various projects related to scientific research.

Friday, 4 November 2011

Table of antimatter

It turns out that in the first fractions of a second occurrence of the cosmos was less fortunate - the matter prevailed, although at the outset was in equal amounts. In two recent discoveries scientists have for the hair closer to the door anti world. What is behind?

What kind of periodic table of elements, which was invented by a brilliant Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, hung on the wall Bizare classroom?

(Bizaro, in every respect, contrary to Superman, among other things, that he enjoys inflicting pain.)

Probably antiperiod table, with antimatter.

  Antimatter mirror image of ordinary matter, which is made up of everything we see and touch. Instead of negatively charged electrons, consists of a positively charged positron. In the same way, our positively charged protons transforms the negative antiprotons. There are also neutral antineutron.

In the first few turbulent fraction of a second birth of the cosmos 13.7 billion years ago ("Big Bang"), had both matter and antimatter. Where the latter is extinct?

The laws of nature (physically) so that in some characteristics of matter and antimatter are different, now it is assumed that these differences were crucial to the future destiny of both. In one of two existing, (attempted) explanation - matter is, simply, penetrated into the area above the blast, which formed the space and time of our universe. It turns out that the antimatter that was unsuccessful.

"Dance of Death" in a flash
Generally accepted theory, the standard model that describes the finest ingredients and the ruling forces in the cosmos, teaches that antimatter is composed of primary (elementary) antiparticle such matter consists of particles.
Each particle is decorated properties (mass, charge, spin, or rotation ...) which make it different from others. And for each there is a corresponding antiparticle, which have some features (like mass or spin) identical, while others (such as electric charge or magnetic moment) the opposite. The most famous example of the electron and positron, which are the reverse charge and magnetic moment, and other characteristics the same.
Matter and antimatter in a flash play "Dance of Death", canceling each other, with the release of enormous energy in the form of gamma radiation and the like. The existence of antiparticles and antimatter first in 1928. noted English scientist Paul Dirac, later Nobel Laureate, imagining positively charged electron, or positron, which is confirmed by experiments in four years.
If particulate matter that comes into contact with antiparticles - say, an electron positron touches - cancel each other (annihilation) of tremendous release of energy.
Since 1955. , when the accelerators ("particle collider") observed antiproton and antineutron, to this day is observed number of antiparticles, and the first core samples antimatter (antiproton antineutron with welded) were observed only decades later. The European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) 1995. have finally filled the void first (dice) in antiperiod table, creating antiatom - 
anti hydrogen, one positron which circle around a lone antiprotons. (antisimbol  anti hydrogen H with a dash above).
In about an ordinary hydrogen protons, which represents the atomic nucleus, an electron orbits, and in some antiprotons,
anti hydrogen, shapes antielectron (positron).
As all manner of consolidating (combining) tiniest particulate matter generated in the same manner arises from antiparticle antimatter. Consistent
anti hydrogen atom can, for example, occur by binding of positrons to antiproton, with characteristics that should be the same as ordinary hydrogen. Indeed, in antiproton collisions with a jet of xenon atoms appeared anti hydrogen atom.
To obtain antimatter, otherwise, it is unlikely a lot of energy, because it lasts a very short time in this lush part of the universe matter. This is an extremely complex undertaking.
Two recent discoveries, however, supported the hopes that one day will be filled vacancies in antiperiod table.
Dan Brown and terrorists
In March, the International Research Fellowship at the National labs Brukheven (USA) created the first nucleus antihelijuma-4, helium counterparts (number two in Mendeljejev table) from our world. Previously made antihelijum-3, but antihelijum-4 paired more antimatter than ever spotted in one place.

                                                     Hydrogen                        Anti hydrogen

This is additional evidence that antimatter can be linked into stable clusters, as it does matter. It was assumed, but this has not been confirmed.
It is equally important as scientists at CERN invented the process in late April anti hydrogen capture. First they get anti hydrogen at extremely high temperatures, and then a fraction of a second antiatome kept in an unusual "electromagnetic cage", before they disappeared.
The new method means that antimatter has cooled, making it easy to capture, and then inserted into unusual store, which lasted almost 17 minutes. This approach, directed to consider, can deepen our understanding of the creation of antimatter. (Earth's gravity may refuse anti hydrogen atoms, which is why they break down immediately.)
The resurrection of the next antielement - anti lithium will be waiting for years. No one knows how long. Speed ​​the creation of antimatter falling, even 1,000 times, with each antiproton or antineutron. Artificially make anti lithium (three and three antiproton antineutron) - about a million times harder than helium-4. And for now, probably, beyond the technological reach of existing equipment. Is there another path?
Physicists studying antimatter in part to figure out one of most completest puzzles. The "big bang", it is assumed, is created equal amounts of matter and antimatter and eons long ago canceled. Hence it seems to matter around in abundance, no one knows why.
Maybe a terrible explosion has not delivered one and the other in equal amounts or has removed a huge blob of matter and antimatter in different directions? In this case, all the antimatter in galaxies far from us.
Study anti hydrogen and anti helium antielement will help find the remote vastness of the cosmic, the arcane anti stars. If there is, consists of anti helium, anti carbon, anti gold. The same seems to have originated anti beings, based on the periodic table anti chemistry antielement.
Far away, Bizaro certainly has its eternal rival - Antisupermena.
Physicists, you may have noticed, struggling to keep their antiparticles as long as the electromagnetic captivity, separated from ordinary matter. Why? They are hoping that the door ajar anti world. The properties of antimatter, otherwise, tested under conditions that do not remotely resemble the descriptions in the novel by Dan Brown's "Angels & Demons". (Remember the conspirators who try to steal a mysterious anti-matter.) Addition, and very expensive: for gram you spend $ 25 billion! So little antimatter is created that the terrorists would not use. We know that anti world not yet discovered.

Thursday, 3 November 2011

The water was brought to Earth icy comets

World oceans contain more than 1.3 billion cubic kilometers of water. Multiply this by several thousand will get the amount they are astronomers have discovered in the universe and to a distance of only 175 light years.

This huge reservoir belongs to the young star TW Hydra, and astronomers believe that this star is not alone in the universe that has a water supply. A team led by researchers from the Netherlands Leiden University is hoping that in the next two years will be able to observe three more water drive.

Scientists are using the super-sensitive infrared technology detected vapor cloud surrounding TW Hydra. Even more interesting was what they could see: water drive means that there is a huge reservoir of water "is enough to fill several thousand of the earth's oceans," according to the journal "Science" which was released to discovery.

Professor of Astronomy at the University of Amsterdam, Carsten Dominik, who has co-authored the article, the Deutsche Welle is a discovery in earthly measures: "If you see an iceberg, you see only its small part. The same concept applies to the universe. Water supplies in the rotating disk is actually located deep below the surface. "Researchers say the comet's icy water is produced in a collision capable of forming new worlds oceans.

When the particles collide

Appeared some questions that the research team had to respond. Professor at the University of Leiden and the Institute "Max Planck" said Erwin van Dishoek Two: Where does our water bodies and oceans and how he arrived on the planet like the Earth?

"We know that the planets formed in the rotating disks of gas and dust around stars and one of the eternal questions is: what are the reservoirs of water that can be found in these disks?"

Dust particles in the cloud are like grains of sand on the beach, only about 10,000 times less. One crash, the growth of square kilometers to the entire planet.

But the disc does not contain only dust but also the water molecules, which are located further from the star, the water inside the disk is cooler. Van Dishoek says that scientists have already noticed the hot water closer to the center but that the water is not necessarily the one that will create a new planetary system. "A sensitive instrument in the observatory of the European Space Agency has enabled them to see the cold water at the edges of the disc.

Van Dishoek frozen water is described as a "zone in which the 'food' new atmosphere or the planet," of the body like the Earth to the so-called. "Water worlds" that giant planets like Jupiter.

Thank technology

Credit for the discovery of the scientists credited with a large capacity unit of the European Space Agency. High Resolution Instrument recognized the steam reservoir with the help of ultraviolet photons, which is released on contact with ice.

"When that happens, they emit radiation that we can discover," explains Carsten Dominik. "We see that the particles act as ice particles in a cloud of dust. Fly around, occasionally collide and unite on this occasion. The more collisions occur, there is more ice comet. "

One theory about the origin of Earth's oceans, these comets were used as transport for water, mostly in the form of ice, into new worlds. Some astronomers represent a different theory: that the asteroids used as a water supplier.

"Very probably, the water came to earth in the form of ice, but it's only a matter of where," says Dominic, adding that both options are possible, and asteroids and icy comets.

Wednesday, 2 November 2011

Mosquitoes mutants, rescue of dengue fever

The descendants of genetically modified insect deadly inherited gene, thus reducing the number of transmissions of the disease.

There is no vaccine against dengue fever carried by mosquitoes, but British scientists say they have just found a way to curb this disease yet. The team genetically modified the insects so that their descendants still die as larvae with no chance for reproduction thereby reducing the number of transmitters of infection.
Mosquitoes were altered in the laboratory so that its young people carry a lethal gene transfer island's media.
After the experiment are several British university professors, as well as companies "Oksitek", which works closely with Oxford.
For researchers, it is important as mosquitoes mutants managed to mate and survive competition by wild insects. When scientists in the earlier experiments sterilize insects, they are not even able to keep up with the intact mosquitoes making it still came to fertilization and recovery of the population.
- You just have to be a moderate number of females mated with males genetically modified to make this method failed, explains Luc Alfi, who teaches at Oxford and working for "Oksitek".
His associates were released genetically modified mosquitoes in parts of the Cayman Islands affected by Dengue fever. Revised insects accounted for 16 percent of male mosquitoes tested in the Caribbean area. At the end of the experiment, scientists have found a lethal gene in ten percent of the larvae, which, according to them, kind enough to suppress. Finally, the number of mosquitoes in a controlled area decreased by 80 percent.
Dengue fever is a virus that gets through mosquitoes bite. World Health Organization recorded 50 million cases per year of which 25,000 patients dies in tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Australia and America. Patients complain of high fever, rash, headache and bone pain.
Proponents of biological engineering, said that this way of controlling the mosquito population as opposed to ecological use of insecticides. However, opponents warn that a modified organisms can no longer return to its natural state. They believe that the "Oksitek" experimented on his own and will operate in those countries where this area is not regulated.
Florida, which has from time to time is also affected by the infection, pending approval of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Expert of the institution Todd Shelley immediately after the publication of the results said that the research is significant, but the more one knows. For example, it will look like mosquito bites genetically modified? In addition, there are data that is 3.5 percent of the larvae survived, despite a lethal gene, so the question is what will they mean for the survival of this species.
- Frankenstein question remains, concluded Shelley.