Friday, 24 May 2013

Galactic crash solves cosmic mystery

Astronomers have captured the rare merger of 2 ancient galaxies fucking into one another, igniting the birth of over 2000 stars a year.

The galactic merger, rumored within the journal Nature, can end in the creation of an enormous elliptical galaxy, eleven times larger than our own galaxy, the Milky Way System.

Scientists, together with the paper\'s lead author Dr Hai Fu of the University of Golden State, Irvine, area unit closely observance the collision between the 2 gas-rich galaxies placed eleven billion light-years away.

\"We see 2 huge galaxies that area unit forming stars at an awfully high speed and area unit close to merge,\" says Fu.

\"No one has seen this before. it is the brightest, most glowing and most gas-rich, sub-millimetre-bright galaxy merger glorious.

\"We area unit seeing these galaxies merging at a time once the universe was but 3 billion years recent.\"

Fu says the 2 galaxies area unit regarding sixty,000 light-years aloof from one another - roughly adequate the gap between the Sun and also the centre of our galaxy.

\"We see material being stripped aloof from the 2 galaxies ... you\'ll see there\'s a bridge of fabric connecting the 2, meaning they\'ve already passed one another your time agone and area unit in a very [gravitational] dance,\" Fu says.

The merger is manufacturing the new mega-elliptical galaxy, that has been named HXMM01, and can have four hundred billion times the mass of the Sun.
Missing link

The discovery is very vital as a result of it represents a transformation introduce galaxy evolution.

\"Galaxies are available 2 flavours, they\'re either red ellipticals or blue spirals,\" says Fu.

\"And there area unit only a few galaxies that lie between those 2 populations. we predict this represents a transition from one sort to the opposite.

\"This bridges the 2 varieties, and shows North American nation however galaxies evolve from blue spirals into red ellipticals.\"

The cosmic collision was discovered by UC Irvine postdoctoral scholar Julie Wardlow in pictures taken by the ecu area Agency\'s Earth orbiting Herschel area telescope, that was retired last month.

Wardlow detected \"an wonderful, bright blob\" in Herschel pictures of regions wherever cold gas and mud area unit coming back along to create new stars.

\"Herschel captured carpets of galaxies, and this one extremely stood out,\" says Wardlow.
Cosmic mystery

The discovery additionally explains the long-standing cosmic mystery of however ellipticals, the foremost huge galaxies nowadays, may kind thus quickly, and then early within the history of the universe, and why they then stop creating new stars.

According to Fu, the gravitative waltz created by the merging galaxies, generates extraordinarily intense star formation.

He estimates new stars area unit being born at a rate resembling 2000 Sun-like stars a year.

The huge amounts of latest stars being generated by this galactic collision uses up huge amounts of star-making atomic number 1, enough to empty that sector of the universe in regarding two hundred million years.

\"That can result in the new galaxy\'s slow starvation for the remainder of its life,\" says Fu.

Monday, 20 May 2013

Moon and Earth Have Common Water Source

Researchers used a multicollector particle microprobe to review hydrogen-deuterium ratios in satellite rock and on Earth. Their conclusion: The Moon\'s water didn\'t come back from comets however was already gift on Earth four.5 billion years agone, once an enormous collision sent material from Earth to create the Moon.

Water within the Moon\'s mantle came from primitive meteorites, new analysis finds, a similar supply thought to possess equipped most of the water on Earth. The findings raise new questions about the method that fashioned the Moon.

The Moon is assumed to possess fashioned from a disc of detritus left once an enormous object hit Earth four.5 billion years agone, terribly early in Earth\'s history. Scientists have long assumed that the warmth from a bearing of that size would cause gas and different volatile parts to boil off into area, which means the Moon should have started off fully dry. however recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ballistic capsule and new analysis on samples from the Greek deity missions have shown that the Moon truly has water, each on its surface and at a lower place.

By showing that water on the Moon and on Earth came from a similar supply, this new study offers nonetheless a lot of proof that the Moon\'s water has been there right along.

\"The simplest clarification for what we tend to found is that there was water on the proto-Earth at the time of the large impact,\" same Alberto Saal, professor of geologic Sciences at university and also the study\'s lead author. \"Some of that water survived the impact, and that is what we tend to see within the Moon.\"

The analysis was co-authored by Erik Hauri of the Carnegie establishment of Washington, James Van Orman of Case Western Reserve University, and Malcolm Rutherford from Brown and revealed on-line in Science specific.

To find the origin of the Moon\'s water, Saal and his colleagues checked out soften inclusions found in samples brought back from the Greek deity missions. soften inclusions square measure little dots of volcanic rock unfree among crystals known as mineral. The crystals forestall water escaping throughout associate eruption and alter researchers to induce an inspiration of what the within of the Moon is like.

Research from 2011 light-emitting diode by Hauri found that the soften inclusions have lots of water -- the maximum amount water in truth as lavas forming on Earth\'s seabed. This study aimed to search out the origin of that water. To do that, Saal and his colleagues checked out the atom composition of the gas unfree within the inclusions. \"In order to grasp the origin of the gas, we would have liked a fingerprint,\" Saal same. \"What is employed as a fingerprint is that the atom composition.\"

Using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50L multicollector particle microprobe at Carnegie, the researchers measured the number of {deuterium|heavy gas|hydrogen atom|isotope} within the samples compared to the number of normal hydrogen. {deuterium|heavy gas|hydrogen atom|isotope} is associate atom of hydrogen with an additional nucleon. Water molecules originating from totally different|completely different} places within the system have different amounts of hydrogen atom. In general, things fashioned nearer to the sun have less hydrogen atom than things fashioned farther out.

Saal and his colleagues found that the deuterium/hydrogen quantitative relation within the soften inclusions was comparatively low and matched the quantitative relation found in chemical element chondrites, meteorites originating within the belt close to Jupiter and thought to be among the oldest objects within the system. meaning the supply of the water on the Moon is primitive meteorites, not comets as some scientists thought.

Comets, like meteorites, square measure best-known to hold water and different volatiles, however most comets fashioned within the way reaches of the system during a formation known as the assemblage. as a result of they fashioned to this point from the sun, they have a tendency to possess high deuterium/hydrogen ratios -- abundant higher ratios than within the Moon\'s interior, wherever the samples during this study came from.

\"The measurements themselves were terribly troublesome,\" Hauri same, \"but the new information give the simplest proof nonetheless that the carbon-bearing chondrites were a typical supply for the volatiles within the Earth and Moon, and maybe the whole inner system.\"

Recent analysis, Saal said, has found that the maximum amount as ninety eight p.c of the water on Earth additionally comes from primitive meteorites, suggesting a typical supply for water on Earth and water on Moon. the best thanks to justify that, Saal says, is that the water was already gift on the first Earth and was transferred to the Moon.

The finding isn\'t essentially inconsistent with the thought that the Moon was fashioned by an enormous impact with the first Earth, however presents a tangle. If the Moon is created from material that came from Earth, it is sensible that the water in each would share a typical supply. However, there is still the question of however that water was able to survive such a violent collision.

\"The impact somehow did not cause all the water to be lost,\" Saal same. \"But we do not understand what that method would be.\"

It suggests, the researchers say, that there square measure some vital processes we do not nonetheless perceive regarding however planets and satellites square measure fashioned.

\"Our work suggests that even extremely volatile parts might not be lost fully throughout an enormous impact,\" same Van Orman. \"We got to return to the planning stage and find out a lot of regarding what big impacts do, and that we additionally would like an improved handle on volatile inventories within the Moon.\"

Funding for the analysis came from National Aeronautics and Space Administration\'s Cosmochemistry and optical device programs and also the NASA satellite Science Institute.

Saturday, 18 May 2013

Gas clouds solve a mystery of universe

Hydrogen clouds discovered between 2 of our near  galaxies might facilitate solve one in all the mysteries of the universe, wherever will the fuel for star formation return from.

The notice revealed nowadays in Nature provides insights into the structure of the chemical element that extends between Andromeda (M31) and constellation (M33) galaxies.

Lead author sociologist Wolfe of West Virginia University and colleagues, believe the clouds ar a part of associate accumulation gas filament and so a possible supply of fuel for future star formation in M31 and M33.

\"We have far-famed for a few time that a lot of on the face of it empty stretches of the universe contain large however diffuse patches of hot, ionising chemical element,\" says Wolfe.

\"Earlier observations of the realm between M31 and M33 steered the presence of colder, neutral chemical element, however we tend to could not see any details to see if it had a definitive structure or drawn a brand new variety of cosmic feature.\"

The two galaxies settled a pair of.6 and 3 million light-years, severally from Earth, ar members of the native cluster of galaxies, that conjointly includes our own Milky Way.
Difficult to nail down

While chemical element is bumper throughout the cosmos, its faint signals create it troublesome to nail down.

Ionised chemical element is nearly invisible, however victimisation the inexperienced Bank astronomical telescope in West Virginia, Wolfe and colleagues were able to discover signals for neutral chemical element.

\"We were able to discover distinct concentrations of neutral chemical element rising out of what was thought to be a in the main plain field of gas,\" says Wolfe.

The researchers estimate regarding fifty per cent of the neutral chemical element condensed out of the filament to make these clouds, that ar as large as dwarf galaxies, having diameters starting from 7800 light-years to over twenty one,000 light-years.

\"Their clustered orientation ... perhaps the results of a filament of matter,\" says author Dr Felix lockmaster from the inexperienced Bank Observatory.

\"The speculation is that a dark-matter filament, if it exists, might offer the gravitative system upon that clouds might condense from a close field of hot gas.\"
Answering a puzzle

These close filaments of hot, ionised, diffuse gas ar the $64000 prize, in step with CSIRO physics and house Science\'s chief soul Dr Henry Martyn Robert Braun.

Braun, World Health Organization writes associate attendant statement piece in Nature, is associate author on the 2004 paper that 1st detected signs of chemical element within the region between M31 and M33.

\"It\'s been a puzzle for a few time however it can be that the universe has been forming stars at such a prodigious rate ... the quantity of gas that is seen to be gift in galaxies isn\'t comfortable to own provided all of the celebs that we tend to see within them,\" says Braun.

\"The resolution to the mystery is that the incontrovertible fact that it\'s during this [invisible] ionising type that a lot of of that gas remains around United States of America even nowadays and what we tend to see because the neutral element is simply alittle fraction of that total [hydrogen] reservoir.\"

Braun says the rise in total chemical element conjointly changes our image of galactic evolution.

\"For a protracted time folks thought all the action occurred billions of years agone. What replaced that was a theory that galaxy interaction was the foremost necessary mechanism for dynamical galaxies through galactic practice,\" says Braun.

\"And currently what we\'re seeing could be a third read that\'s superseding those previous ones, wherever it extremely is that this setting in between the distinct galaxies that ... plays a vital role within the evolution (providing) the continued fuelling for galaxies.\"

Thursday, 16 May 2013

Discovered an invisible rivers in the atmosphere

Atmospheric rivers are large continuous currents of moist air, meandering thousands of miles through the sky. They were discovered only recently, and in terms of rainfall they supply are as dangerous and hurricanes.

The first signs of the existence of the celestial river discovered Yong Zhu and Reginald Njel from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who in 1998. in climate models found that almost all of the money that travels between the tropics and high latitude collects in the narrow, thick flows. This was in contrast with the current view of the distribution of water in the form of clouds from the sprayer.

This model was later confirmed by satellite imagery.

What causes a celestial river?

Scientists still do not know what stimulates the formation of these streams in the atmosphere. For climatologists they are simply unpredictable phenomena.

If the program insert a few key data about the atmosphere, such as conservation of matter and time, the distribution of solar radiation, the Earth's rotation and thermal properties of water, the celestial river will occur.

In the northern hemisphere, they usually occur as a cyclonic field - systems of low pressure, rotating counter-clockwise to bring warm and humid air from the south and southwest to the coast. If the winds at a height of about a kilometer particularly strong, large amounts of air full of water can move a long distance in a short time. If the current hits the coastal mountains vapor is condensed and formed abundant precipitation.

At any time on satellite images of the Earth can be seen five or six of these rivers. Many of them spent over the oceans, and carry with them the average moisture content as 15 Mississippi or an Amazon, however, major problems occur when atmospheric conditions stop in one place.

Tuesday, 14 May 2013

How NASA plans to catch an asteroid

After an unusual plan presented by NASA received the approval of President Barack Obama's America, the agency issued a complete animation of this project. See how they are going to catch a small asteroid and dragged him to the next orbit of the moon.

The project would start catching small asteroid from which the astronauts in the future should embark on missions to Mars. NASA expects that the first astronauts could visit the asteroid but 2021st year.

Obama has approved a budget of 17.7 billion dollars in 2014. year, and this project is intended that budget.

More 2010th The Obama has proposed to the International Space Station NASA launch and mission of sending a man to the asteroid 2025. year.

NASA has since worked on developing a missile capable of raising large cargo into space, and the capsule that could take astronauts to the much longer journey.

The space agency first to catch an asteroid with a diameter 7 to 10 meters, which would then dragged to the ground to put it into a stable orbit around the moon.

Sunday, 12 May 2013

The dark matter hiding parallel universe

Scientists have not been able to confirm the existence of dark matter in spite of the experiment worth $ 2 billion, which was conducted on the International Space Station. However, the new theory is that dark matter could be hiding a parallel universe that could completely change the way we understand the universe.

"Behind the dark matter could be hiding a parallel world where the really interesting things happen. It could also mean that nature is much richer than we think, "said James Bullock of the University of California.
Earlier this month, an international team of scientists said that the cosmic ray detector on the International Space Station encountered the first traces of the existence of dark matter.
Physicists fields Gagnon said that the experiment could change the way we see the universe.
"Detection of dark matter would be amazing discovery, something like discovering a whole new continent. That would really open the door to a whole new world, "she said.
Dark matter is a challenge for so-called. The Standard Model of physics that helps us to identify the particles and forces that affect our daily lives, but it is insufficient for understanding the entire cosmos.
The standard model has, for example, describes how gravity and only four or five percent of matter in the universe.
The rest is dark matter, which accounts for 23 percent of the universe, and dark energy, a mysterious force that is believed to influence the expansion of the universe and that represent 72 to 73 percent of the universe.
"Now we realize that the mysterious dark matter holds together the rest of our galaxy and universe," said Turner told AFP, adding that scientists have strong evidence that the dark matter consists of something new, which does not correspond to any particle of the Standard Model.
The theory of dark matter was created 80 years ago when the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zvika found that in space there is not enough visible matter which should be attributed to the current strength of gravitational forces within and between galaxies.
According to some theorists, the dark matter consists of exotic particles called Wimps with weak interaction with visible matter.
"The main question is why dark matter is six times more energy than ordinary matter," said Lisa Randall of Harvard University, stating that it could be a sign that there is some other interaction that we can not detect.
In search of the phantom cells, physicists use a number of methods and instruments. One of these instruments is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is located on the International Space Station, and performing analysis of gamma rays generated by colliding particles of dark matter.
Another instrument that scientists use the Observatory at the South Pole to mark the subatomic particles (neutrinos) which, according to scientists, are created when dark matter passing through the sun and in the interaction with protons.
Another powerful tool in the service of this project is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, the largest particle collider in the world with the power, the scientists believe, could break with the electrons, quarks, and neutrinos to detect dark matter.
"Dark matter particles are very difficult. This is one of the reasons why we built the LHC, not only to discover the Higgs boson," said Mary Spiropulu, professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology.

Friday, 10 May 2013

Is there another Higgs boson?

Once you have discovered the existence of a Higgs boson, scientists are now pondering whether the new found particles confirm their expectations or in space, he's been hiding some Higgs boson.

So far, the data suggest that the Higgs boson particle, which should explain how other particles get their mass, and there are no big surprises, according to a physicist meeting American Association of Physics.

However, this does not mean that scientists do not expect nock new excitement or even the existence of another Higgs boson.

"There are a number of theoretical models that predict more complex Higgs field," said Markus Klute, fizičas with Intstituta of Technology in Massachusetts.

Some of the existing theories predict the existence of the Higgs boson to 5 different masses.

Physicists in March confirmed that the new particle discovered in most Hadron Collider actually the Higgs boson. This particle, which is 126 times heavier than the proton, so far fits into the Standard Model of physics, which is the dominant theory when it comes to particle physics.

Physicists hope that after re-ignition Collider 2015th year will have much more power to detect a Higgs boson harder variations, and there is a chance that some of them are hiding in the existing results of which are still being processed.

Scientists in December 2012. The observed results indicated the existence of another Higgs boson mass differently, but the data did not show up during testing at other laboratories.

Wednesday, 8 May 2013

Mammoths are comming back

Japanese scientists plan to 2017. year to revive mammoths. Already geneticists all over the world working on the cloning of animals that have become extinct before the tens of thousands of years. Some experts claim that the Earth will soon look like a Hollywood movie "Jurassic Park," while others refer to reality is not confused with advertising campaigns.
The idea of ​​cloning extinct animals, but some tens of years excites minds on the margins of science and ordinary people. Today, the interrupt serious and even jokingly talks about reviving prehistoric Squamata, dinosaurs - far too long bone were in their country, so they only save the traces on the stones.
Another thing mammoths. The history of these animals began at about the same time as the history of the human race, but it was too short. Unlike the dinosaurs whose remains likely to be present in the hot rocky desert landscapes, mammoths found frozen in layers of soil (permafrost) in the arctic regions of Siberia and in North America. Over thousands of years in ice, as in the refrigerator to preserve the animal's body, preserved the soft tissue, bone, and skin often. It begins with the "miracle" of cloning a mammoth, about which scientists, despite the enormous skepticism, - for the first time seriously discussed. The only thing they need most fragments of tissues extinct, with well-preserved DNA. The realization of this project is very real, but it does not lead to anything good, is the conviction biologist Alexander Chubenko, science journalist, editor of the website "Eternal Youth".
- Not known arrangement of genes in the chromosomes, I'm not sure whether it is about the number of chromosomes as they are so frozen tissue remaining some "leftovers" and "odds and ends" of the DNA. Secondly, it is doubtful that the uterus to accept an embryo mammoth elephant, even if it is obtained. Far more interesting than these projects, cloning, and is far more promising idea Jack Horner of the University of Montana. He intends to make to the "dino-chicken" or "coco-saurus." Take chicken, activate the "sleeping" genes, which are not functioning, and the egg, perhaps in several stages, to get something like a dinosaur.
According to experts, this scientific experiment will cost about two million dollars, while the value of cloning a mammoth - billions of dollars. Considerably lower rates to "resurrect" pet owners offered a sad American businessmen. Cloning and beloved
puppy or kitten  cost of 250 thousand U.S. dollars. But one thing is - pet, and quite another - the mammoth, that simply will not survive in the present conditions is considered by many scholars, simply because the climate on Earth is quite different, but rather a 400 thousand years.
While some scientists are trying to cloning mammoth - Scientists from Australia's University of New South Wales already created genome rare frogs. This species has completely disappeared on the continent early 80s of the last century. True derived embryos did not survive, as it was with the cloning 2009th The Pyrenean mountain goat, who lived a few minutes from the moment of birth. Scientists, however, do not lose hope and the hope of a breakthrough in cloning extinct species. What can be the consequences, and if we get to the end of some monstrous creature - their thoughts on how is the doctor of biological sciences, professor, deputy director of the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of viral and cellular molecular genetics IMG Sciences Vyacheslav Tarantula.
- Conduct a discussion, for example, even in the case of such a project as cloning Neanderthals. This is not a man, it is a minor species. This situation is quite controversial as human cloning, because it is not known what will be there to give birth and how to deal with this creature: as an animal or to man. In general, there are technical and moral issues, and of course economically.
Additionally Today there is another problem, which can not overlook. In Yakutia - the permafrost zone, lies a vast amount of forgotten forms of life, and began to "war" in the ruins, the remains of the missing animals. Because apart from national research teams, we are present, "the mammoth hunters" who just leads to fighting. The point is that in 1990. in world trade is prohibited elephants tusks so the tusks of a mammoth, that make up the most diverse things - from chess pieces to ornaments, to get the price. The price of one pair of tusks on the black market may be about 75 thousand euros. It is known that a necklace made from this material have even first lady Michelle Obama.
But until someone deals with the cloning of rare species of animals, and some of that money, our planet is still a far more significant problem. The biological diversity of the earth every day all the poorer. So that in the near future the world may think of cloning as yet live tigers, leopards and rhinos.

Monday, 6 May 2013

The combination of energy and information transfer: a large economic impact

Russian scientist has managed to combine power transmission and exchange of data. For the first time in the world this line is made in the Russian science city Dubna. It was based on standard optical fiber placed between the poles. The project implemented a little enterprise and innovation-Dubna University - Maison company.
Russian experts have taken to the technology of the famous engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla. In 19th century, he proposed a transfer of active power using
resonant properties single-conductor lines made of metal wire. About this basically says the leading technology innovator engineer with Maison Alexander Antonov.
- Information goes through the glass, through the lens, and energy go a metal sheath cable. Cable construction is such that it goes ten glass optical fibers. They are wrapped in a tube around the metal bar that goes as to protect the cable. And then going polyethylene membrane. So you go information glass pipes, in optics, electricity and a metal layer. Since it uses the resonance method, the active branches in the chain does not run along the power cord is
expand wave voltage and losses are very small. So, there it convenient to carry long distances, that's an advantage.
By wrapping fiber optic cable can be supplied some equipment for telephone or cell phone number. It gives a good saving copper, since the optical cable transmits electricity glass paneling. The combination of transmission and information provides a synergistic effect, highlights the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Dubna coordinate project that Yuri Krjukov.
- All our homes there are also several cable systems. That is the power supply network, data network Internet, telephony, television, alarm system. Gradually all information systems are connected to a network - a network data transfer. Electricity networks are separate, there is no technology that would allow to integrate into one system. Construction of two separate systems requires twice the cost. Further network data and power transmission networks serviced by the two companies at the same time. If you connect it to a system, it is cheaper.
In addition, optical VLKN may be transferred power supply where it is not convenient to place the two cables to a remote device, said an expert. For example, when a remote village should be placed video cameras, it should take you to a network of transmitting data and power supply. It is not appropriate and it is expensive. And so a single cable to transmit both.
In Dubna already working two polygons where tries intellectual network delivery of electric power and data - in the territory of a university campus on the banks of the Volga. There consume energy street lights, video cameras, wireless access points Wai-Fai included its own fiber-optic monitoring for servers and ensure the power of the digital substation. Experts believe that the technology of Russian inventors has great prospects.

Saturday, 4 May 2013

Chelyabinsk meteor threatens with new disaster

Meteorite that fell more than two months in the South Urals in Chelyabinsk may deprive local residents of water. If you raise a meteor weighing half a ton of lake Čebarkulj can happen local disaster. The point is that the lake is the only source of drinking water for the residents of the eponymous city. Now local authorities and scientists are looking for ways to do it and when it does not damage the town water supply.
The bottom of the site of the celestial body is covered with a thick layer of mud and it got stuck in a meteor. A technique sucks soil can help. Muddy water means to leave the city without drinking water.
Experts have suggested two possible technological operations. The part of the meteor can be drilled openings in them can be placed hooks and carefully raise the meteor ropes.
A scientist from the Czech Republic offered uralcima unique technology meteor underwater fishing. Ginter Kletečka, Czech geophysicist, biologist and astrobiologist imagined a radical and safe manner. The scientist was 14 years in the U.S. cosmic agency NASA, participated in the launch of the Mars vehicle. Now he is offered a way to escape the meteor. Therefore, it is considered Kletečka should freeze intruder, namely mud around the target. It is not difficult now because the temperature at the bottom of the lake plus all three levels, says geophysicist:
- The principle is as follows. Over the target is 10 feet of water. In addition, three meters of mud in which virtually collapsed, when it fell to the bottom. First of all, over the target to remove a layer of mud to put on meteor sensor.
The sensor is needed to accurately budget weight and size of the cosmic intruder. Further towards the meteor down pipes, they ensure supply of liquid nitrogen. The space around freezing and forming something like a brick with mud. It can be pulled out without damage to the city water supply, said Kletečka:
- At the bottom can be psotavi inflatable boat. For it can be placed meteor. It remains to pump up the air in order to raise the boat to the surface of the meteorite.
So you will not have to dig mud and dispersed throughout the lake, staining the whole system of water uptake. Czech scientist is sure that a meteorite could bring the body to the Earth from space. There will probably be played in the city water!
Russian scientists have now pinpointed where it is now a meteor. With magnetometry help create the magnetic map of the lake and found the anomaly 50 meters from izlovanja that is left after the fall of the alien intruder. Working on meteors should start the next day.

Thursday, 2 May 2013

The divine proportion

"Let me interpret those who are not mathematicians," is often cited thought to be attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), one of the greatest artists, scientists and researchers that human civilization had.
And today, while Leonardo's works continue to provoke a lot of attention and nothing less deflection due to the mystique that they are easily attributed to, we can not but admit that the sight of them gives the impression of absolute harmony and infinity, something that in real life there does not exist.
That impression and feeling that makes short work of finishing work and thousands of sketches, drawings and illustrations testify to the part of a man who is making the time when the Middle Ages off and abandoned, ancient love for a man woke, he tried to trace the remains of the past and find eternal , immutable truth, universal in every society and in every person.
Leonardo's work carries a testimony to the spirit of the Renaissance, when humanism as the philosophical ideas of the epoch and cope with the challenges and temptations of superstition and ignorance.
Leonardo's paintings, famous not only in the original, but the ubiquitous reproductions - Adoration of the Magi (1481), The Last Supper (1498), Mona Lisa (c. 1505), SS. John the Baptist (1514) - the most important part of the world's artistic heritage.
There is, however, a piece that its structure and content provides an excellent introduction to the story of the relationship of the great artist and mathematics. This is a drawing of a man Vitruvijanski (around 1485), the male figure, which seems to float in an undefined space limited only by thin lines, squares and circles.
Referring to Vitruvius, a Roman architect celebrated the end of the old era, Leonardo consciously reveal who his role models and where the search for answers to their questions more numerous.
If we follow his writings, known as codices, which he, texts and drawings, almost frantically, constantly and daily meet, we all topics and areas covered by this humanist and certainly the biggest homo universalis the world has seen.
At more than 5,000 pages of Leonardo's records are thinking, analysis and findings in such diverse scientific disciplines such as aeronautics and anatomy, botany and mechanics, cartography and hydraulics, acoustics and weapons production, urbanism and optics.

This, in fact, as if it required a clear classification, our in measure and number, by Leonardo gets a random (?) Encounter with Luke Pacolli (1446-1516) in Milan, during the painting of the Last Supper for the Church of Santa Maria della Grazie, probably 1496/97. year.
Since then, the next ten years, Leonardo Paco are inseparable friends, associates and researchers, who are trying to revive and restore long-forgotten ancient knowledge. Pacoima, a Franciscan monk, and Leonard became a mathematics teacher who helps him to acquire mathematical knowledge necessary for further development of his ideas and work.
Their collaboration culminated in the publication of three manuscript versions Pačolijevog file Proportione Divina - the divine proportion, in the late 15th century, in which Pacoima successively for the next few years.
To book his friend Leonardo prepares drawings illustrating the golden ratio, proportion, and models of polyhedra highlighted by the many ancient philosophers and mathematicians such as Plato, Euclid and Archimedes.
The Renaissance man polyhedra admired as an extraordinary body of beauty. Dodecahedron are thus seen as a representation of the universe in all its glory and integrity. In addition polyhedra Leonardo designs and letters of the alphabet - the initials of which is perhaps the most famous big "M" that the Metropolitan Museum of New York uses as its logo.
As the first printed edition of this work was not published until 1509, several years after scattering Leonard and Pacolli belated glory of theoretical mathematics from the file begins to spread among and between artists and scientists.
In the early 16th century, the divine proportion becomes as indispensable reading for all those concerned with mathematics, but they need Leonardo visuals. At that time, Pacoima to Venice writes that "in Milan polyhedra made sublime painter, architect, musician, and a universal genius, Florentine Leonardo da Vinci."