Monday, 26 November 2012

Planet Earth is suffocating from gases that cause the greenhouse effect

18.11.2011. - 2012. matured in the atmosphere of Earth more than 37 billion tons of carbon dioxide
The record of the Earth's atmosphere pollution shocked scientists. In Germany, the published results of research experts of the Institute of sources of energy, which is renewable. According to the document, the content in the atmosphere of gases that cause the greenhouse effect, and is still rising.
German scientists have focused on a record level of industrial emissions of these gases over the entire period of observation. 2011th The Earth's atmosphere is past due more than 37 billion tons of carbon dioxide, which climatologists believe the main cause of climate change on the planet. About a quarter of the world's emissions of China made. Continue to follow the U.S. and Iran. Russia, according to the estimates of experts, has registered a reduction of emissions.
Expert of the Institute of Economic Forecasting RAN Porfirjev Boris explains that, as the Russian economy has been a structural changes, was adopted measures to increase energy efficiency of industrial production.
- Strong reduction of the 1990-ies was a result of the economic crisis, however, after 2000. The Russian economy has been growing. Grew and emissions. In doing so, the average annual growth rate of emissions was approximately 0.8 to 0.85 per cent per year, while the economy grew by about 4 percent a year. These results are important structural changes that have occurred in recent years at the expense of 20 branches, which require less energy. German research scientists have been published on the eve of the regular 18th UN Conference on the problems of global climate change. It will be held from 26 November to 7 December in Doha, capital of Qatar. It is assumed that the conference will work out a new agreement on the conservation of the Earth's climate. The document will replace the Kyoto Protocol, whose term expires this year of action.
Kyoto critics are again highlighted the inefficiency of the agreement. Has not managed to reduce the emission of gases that cause the greenhouse effect. On the contrary, they have risen at twice the 1990-year. Conservationists point out that the Kyoto Protocol has not put anyone super tasks. The main task was to draw the world's attention to the problem of climate on Earth - says the expert of the Russian Federation Mikhail
Julkin for industrialist and contractors.
- It can be argued that the attempt failed. Yet developed countries are largely fulfilled commitments - reducing emissions by 5 percent compared to the level of the 1990th year. Emissions have been reduced in this part of the world. The other thing, as they grew in that part of the world, who had no obligations. I would point out that under the Clean Development Mechanism in developing countries there are about 4 thousand projects. This means that billions of tons of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not matured. I think this is a good result.
"Green" projects aimed at reducing emissions of industrial gases in the atmosphere, and work in Russia. They are the deflection of the supporting gas utilization, the implementation of new technology, the use of biofuels.
Russia, and beside Japan, Canada and many other countries, have made the decision not to participate in the second period Kyoto agreement. And that, primarily because, as industry giants such as China and the U.S. are not even involved in it. However, this does not mean that Russia back away from his obligations to low-carbon crossing the path of development, says a representative of the Ministry of Economic Development Oleg Plužnikov.
- The Russian government is now considering adopting a variant of the Interior liability limits emissions by 25 percent from the level of 1990-year. Here we are outside the EU. Hopefully, the EU will follow our example. I also hope that if the Doha such a goal if it is not checked, then it will be the least compliant. It is important that Russia is withdrawing from active attitude.
Russia is interested in a new climate agreement include a maximum number of participating countries, - said the expert.

Saturday, 24 November 2012

Memory that stores data for millions of years

Hitachi has managed to develop a solution for long-term storage of data and claims that in this way they can save hundreds of millions of years.

The technology that was introduced earlier this week in Tokyo, uses a very precise laser to the small pieces of silica glass incorporated dots binary code.

Optical microscope (paired with a computer capable to decipher the imprint) later used to obtain the original data stored on a piece of quartz glass.

Hitachi solution is such that it will be able to survive any apocalyptic scenario that you can imagine: a two centimeter square piece of quartz glass, fire resistant - Hitachi is one such sample is heated up to 1,000 degrees Celsius for two hours, and the data were then able to successfully recover .

This does not mean that Hitachi no obstacles that must be overcome. Capacity is a problem because the laminated quartz glass can save up to about 40MB per square inch. This puts it on par with the CD-R, but not in rankings with a much larger (and far less reliable) external drives.

Nevertheless, this technology makes it really fascinating way to archive important historical and cultural data.

Thursday, 22 November 2012

Scientists read minds patients with brain dysfunction

Scientists from the University of Western Ontario's claim to distinguish brain signals the patient, who for ten years in a state of vegetation.

Scientists constantly monitor the behavior of the blood vessels of the brain 39-year old Scott Rautlija. Having studied the specific parts of the brain response to some questions posed to healthy people, neurologists were asked the same questions that the patient, at the same time keeping track of blood vessels.

The result, according to scientists, surpassed all expectations, because they are clearly caught the answers yes and no. For example, 39-year old Canadian, who sustained serious head injuries in a car accident, said experts not to feel pain.

Neuroscientists believe that the new method of "dialogue" with such help many patients who have a similar diagnosis to communicate their thoughts and feelings.

Tuesday, 20 November 2012

The Russians made ​​a super-concrete

Russian scientists have made concrete which are not any terrible weather cataclysms. He not only is superior than other types of concrete, but is faster and hardens. This is particularly important for emergency repair of damaged bridges, dams, roads. In doing reconstruction work will now be able to perform in any weather conditions.
At first glance, everything is as usual: sand, gravel and cement. But instead of water is added to the solution of a special polymer fluid, which provides the unique properties of concrete, says senior researcher at the Russian University of Chemical Technology Mendeleyev Alexander Nikitjuk:
- We have examples where we have been working on a fairly low temperatures, down to minus 28 degrees Celsius. We evaluated the concrete during heavy rainfall and even under water.
Special liquid polymer encapsulates all the components, connect them, and also protects against chemical reaction. This is particularly noticeable if you drive down the samples in acid, says researcher of the Russian University of Chemical Technology Mendeleyev Jelena Pisarenko:
- We take a piece of plain concrete and drop it in hydrochloric acid. The first seconds are often very severe reaction. Concrete starts to crumble. Also working with new concrete. No external signs react.
This property, say the authors, will be useful for repair of industrial buildings, bridges and overpasses, which are constantly applied and chemically aggressive liquid reagents, for example atifriz solutions for roads.
An important feature is another new concrete - the speed at which it hardens. It is indispensable for patching holes in the dams or on airport runways. In order to gain strength plain concrete is required one month, and the new salary concrete harden for half an hour and be stronger than regular concrete, almost twice. Composite concrete universal. It can easily replace existing materials. In addition, scientists assure us that he will not be more expensive than ordinary cemen

Sunday, 18 November 2012

Here's why IQ does not measure real intelligence!

Every ten years, the average IQ increase by about 3 points, but does that mean that we are becoming more intelligent and the trend points to something else?

Psychologist James Flynn for years is higher than average IQ. As he puts it, every ten years, average IQ countries grow about three points, but that does not mean that people are getting smarter, and that trend has got him by name Flin effect, according to io9.

Flynn says that people are often confused, so comparing one's mind with IQ, but it is not. Intelligence measures, says Flynn, learned abilities, not innate ones. Education of children in schools is changing as time goes on and they perform better on standardized tests, including the IQ tests.

The Flin attitude contrasts with many other theories that IQ measures innate mental abilities that education, culture, the environment in which the individual lives can not influence. But two new studies substantiate the theory Flin.

The first study is a broad collapsed to popular theory that cultural and educational elements can not affect one's abstract thinking. It turned out that the abstract thinking and the applicable Flin effect. "Improvement of performance on IQ tests does not mean that we become more intelligent. This means that more people today are learning to think abstractly. Example, children in school today are learning algebra much earlier," said Mitchum Ejnsli author of the study.

But if IQ largely the result of environmental factors, what does that say about the intelligence at all? Are not some people are born with more gifts of intelligence than others? Probably not, says Professor Mitchum. Adults and do not differ too much in
neuro-pathological level. Certainly, those who have survived a brain injury or have had difficulties in the development and have different mental abilities, but others have more or less the same abilities.

So IQ tests really tell us about the impact of the environment and of experience, but that does not mean that they are unnecessary. What's more, they give us great insight into the changes in our culture.

Friday, 16 November 2012

What really happened to the Mayans?

Many civilizations in history have had their ups and downs, but few that have vanished as suddenly and as thoroughly as the Mayan culture.

What went wrong?

The answer to this question may have tried many scientists. The latest research shows that a great culture, which flourished for centuries in many respects, destroyed climate change and social action, not a disaster, such as volcanic eruptions, storms or disease. Faced with terrible, long-lasting drought, the Mayans were simply picked up their belongings and moved.

Maya civilization reached its zenith between the 300th and 600 in AD. In this so called. classical period of Guatemala, through Belize to the Yucatan rises the 60-odd cities where there were between 60 and 70 thousand inhabitants. They built a shrine, playgrounds and complex systems, water storage, discussed philosophy, enjoy the first hot chocolate in the world and have developed a highly accurate astronomical calendar that some misinterpreted and concluded that predicts the end of the world in December 2012. Agriculture also flourished - the slopes of the hills are transformed into terraces that nourish all growing population.

But then came the decline that lasted more than two centuries. By the 1100th sometimes advanced cities become desolate. Why did the Mayans migrated and where did they go?

Complex reasons

When you are in the 19 century archaeologists began to excavate the ruins srednjoameričke first appeared in numerous theories about the causes of catastrophic failure May. However, new studies reveal that these reasons were numerous and complex - from war to drought and famine.

According to the latest research, presented in the new issue of the journal Science, climate change played a key role in this process, and the Maya themselves were partly responsible. Drought caused problems in agriculture and the instability that resulted in the war and the fall of the big cities. Following the political decline occurred is another great drought which prevented the recovery of civilization.

This theory is not new, some scientists are already some evidence substantiated. However, a new study researchers have so far the most accurate weather analysis and scale droughts recorded in the caves, and they tried to agree on the whole mosaic of stories about the collapse of the Maya.

An international team led by Kenneth Douglas, an anthropologist from Pennsylvania State University took samples of stalagmites in a cave York Baluma which was discovered near the ancient Mayan settlement. Stalagmites, which are formed by deposition of minerals in the water that drips from above, grow faster in more rainy years. Therefore, they are good indicators of climate conditions. One of the collected samples is so large and old that shows what were the weather changes in the past two centuries.

The study authors write that their analysis found that the early classical period of May was unusually wet, wetter than the previous thousand years. During this period, the 440th to 660, the population grew and cities have sprung up. All the important achievements of the Mayan civilization was in the 200-year Tinak. If stalagmites reveal that these two centuries was actually an anomaly. "Mayan systems were based on samples of time in which there was plenty of rain," said Kenneth, adding: "When they changed more samples could not be maintained."

Distrust and instability

Religious and political system based on the Mayan belief that the rulers directly communicate with the gods. When these communications are not created rain and harvest, have been developed tension. For example, in only 25 of 750 to 775th 39 warring rulers ordered the same number of stone monuments that bear witness to the conflicts, wars and strategic alliances. But circumstances have in time become even more difficult. From the 1020th the 1100th region swept longest drought in 2000. With her yields have fallen, and performed famine, pestilence, and emigration. Until the arrival of the conquistadors in the 16th Ages of May in the interior fell by 90 percent, and many cities were already abandoned.

Human impact on climate

Scientists believe that the Mayans themselves partly caused by climate change and drought. "The region lived tens of millions of people who build cities and farms at the expense of forests," said climatologist Benjamin I. Cook. His computer simulations have shown that deforestation interrupted the natural cycle of the flow of moisture from the soil into the atmosphere and reduce moisture locally catastrophic for five to 15 percent. When this is added the natural trend, it is clear that the situation was untenable. Cook warns us that something similar could happen today. 

Why did the Maya have recovered?

According to a survey in August in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences released a Billy Lee Turner Mayan civilization ceased to exist even after the fall of the city even after the arrival of the conquistadors. "In this area there are still Mayan people. Their culture and traditions have held, however, cities are not, "said Turner, who is considered to be one of the few historical examples of similar evictions so radical Cambodian city of Angkor Wat in the 15th century.

Tuesday, 13 November 2012

In the Netherlands, will appear first "smart roads"

Middle of next year roads in the Netherlands will be "wiser". Wired magazine reports that will get interactive lighting and warn of weather conditions. The project belongs to designer smart roads Rozegarde Day, and will be financed by the company Heijmans. On the basis of elaborating the luminescent powder. A little later the "smart roads" to learn that a full battery electric vehicle. Light road will allow wind turbines, light bulbs will be lit only when the "feel" closer to the car. Smart ways to win after Netherlands United Drževe where Google is working on a car without a driver.

Sunday, 11 November 2012

The Japanese move objects by thought

In Japan, created a device that allows you to run power objects of thought. Coffee looks like a hat with cables and sensors that respond to minute changes in blood pressure and brain impulses. way during the experiment was a man who did not even move, just by thought, could not run the wheelchair in the desired direction, moving curtains, including switches off the TV and lights in the room. idea of the company that made ​​the machine to 2020. The mass production of a viable device. Coffee should make life easier for people with limited physical abilities.

Friday, 9 November 2012

Phone controlled by view

The company was created by the Copenhagen software that allows users to control mobile view. This invention could provoke a revolution in the use of elektroniskih book readers and phones. 

Think of that the next time you want to unlock your iPhone, do view. Denmark's The Eye Tribe has made it possible. She has developed a program to help control the view, which uses infrared technology. "We design the infrared light to the eye, and collects the reflected infrared camera. We have a program that can be very precise to say where the movie screen. And it helps control using views, "explains Alstrup Johansen, one of four Ph.D. from the University of Copenhagen to participate in the development program. This August they have collected 615. 000 euros from private investors to make a prototype. 

Johansen and his colleagues believe that the control looked through movement and the next big thing - Follow-touch control, which is now the standard when it comes to mobile phones. The program is described as "optional" form of control and as a step towards more "smarter" devices. He said that it could fundamentally change the way that games, entertainment, and even learning. "Imagine an electronic book that automatically turns a new page, so you know exactly when you read the whole page, imagine a phone that knows it's you when you look at it, and when you look to the side, it can be turned off," illustrated by Johansen. "When you play a game, she will know exactly where your attention is focused. So you can create amazing and more fun games. '.

Possible adverse effects

However, the question is what about the harmful effects such as eye strain. The Central Association of opticians in Germany say that, since the technology has not been tested, it is not known what effect it can have. Dr. Thomas Liska, an ophthalmologist at the University Clinic in Hamburg, says perfusion infrared eyes can cause complications. "We know without any doubt that infrared light can damage the eye lens. And as more time is spent in front of mobile devices, such ray exposure time is critical, "says Liska. According to him, it is necessary to limit the exposure in order to avoid unnecessary risks. "Experiments would have to show that prolonged exposure dose emitted from these devices has no harmful effects," said Liska.

Alstrup Johansen, however, says that the eyes do not stress if you just look at the device in a natural way. "But if you want more direct control, for example if you are playing a game in which the goal, this is certainly something that we're used to. In some cases, there would be ways to train yourself to use the view control, when it is not natural, "says Johansen. The company sees the Copenhagen view control in addition to other types of control devices, such as voice control, which already exists in the market, with varying degrees of success.

From patent to the actual users  

The Eye Tribe want their technology to become ubiquitous. For this reason, and dropped free software kits to encourage developers to create applications that use this technology. "We believe that control of the sea This unique technology which can benefit people around the world. We want everyone to have access to this technology, "says Johansen. The company says it will make money from selling licenses to producers. before them, but the big obstacles to convince big companies such as Apple and Samsung, to the next generation of devices include components necessary to control the view. "They need to make some small changes to their own devices, but we see that there is great interest in the market for all natural, so I think it's definitely possible," Johansen optimistic. The company would not reveal his secret strategy for it. But if control of view become the next big thing in mobile telephony, then iPhone get a whole new meaning.   

Wednesday, 7 November 2012

Scientists noticed the light most ancient star in universe

Astrophysicists working with data space telescope Fermi Gamma have found traces of light of the first stars in the universe. According to scientists, "see" extragalactic radiation is very important, because it allows you to peer into the most ancient history of the universe. Scientists suspect that this radiation originates from the epoch of 300,000 to 1 billion years after the Big Bang. Tracker has helped scientists obtain new information about the process of the oldest stars. Among other things, according to their calculations, the speed of formation of the first stars were much smaller than previously thought.

Monday, 5 November 2012

Algae will become the cheapest fuel

U.S. scientists have found a way to quickly and efficiently processing seaweed into biofuel. U.S. National Science Foundation reports that the thermal processing of raw materials took literally one minute. experiment's objective was to mimic the natural processes of marine microorganisms to convert into crude oil. As raw materials are taken unicellular green algae nannochloropsis. truth, experts say it is too early to talk about the practical use of a new method for making biofuels.