Saturday, 26 July 2014

Astronomers Find Unexpected Lack of Water Vapour on Hot Jupiters

A team of astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have gone looking for water vapour in the atmospheres of three planets orbiting stars similar to the Sun – and have come up nearly dry. The three planets, HD 189733b, HD 209458b, and WASP-12b, are between 60 and 900 light-years away, and are all gas giants known as ‘hot Jupiters.’ These worlds are so hot, with temperatures between 900 to 2200 degrees Celsius, that they are ideal candidates for detecting water vapour in their atmospheres. However, the three planets have only one-tenth to one-thousandth the amount of water predicted by standard planet formation theories. The best water measurement, for the planet HD 209458b, was between 4 and 24 parts per million. The results raise new questions about how exoplanets form and highlight the challenges in searching for water on Earth-like exoplanets in the future. The findings were published Thursday (24 July) in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Tuesday, 22 July 2014

We transform matter into energy all the time, but never energy into matter...but that could change!

We all know the famous equation thought up by Albert Einstein, "E=mc2." It means that matter and energy are the same thing and can be converted back and forth. We see this all the time, from gasoline to atom bombs. But we only see one side of the equation: turning matter into energy. Now there is a plan to make energy into matter.

It hasn't happened yet, but Oliver Pike, the scientist who proposed the experiment, hopes that it will happen by 2015.

Although it's never been done in the lab before, the process is thought to be fairly straightforward. Scientists are going to smash together photons much like they do with particles in machines such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

The only hard part about this should be finding the right place to do it. The experiment requires two powerful lasers and vacuum conditions, but Pike says several scientists are interested in trying it out, so it shouldn't take too long to find a place.

The experiment design relies on a hohlraum, a small metal cylinder that holds hydrogen fuel in laser fusion experiments. Heating a hohlraum with a laser produces a dense field of X-ray photons inside. Pike's team estimates that passing a jet of high-energy gamma-ray photons through the laser-excited hohlraum would make enough photons collide to produce up to 100,000 pairs of electrons and positrons.

Friday, 18 July 2014

Russian physicists make teleportation reality

Russian scientists from the Moscow Physical-Technical Institute, in collaboration with colleagues from the Czech Republic and Slovakia, have found a way to preserve the quantum entanglement of the particle as it passes through the accelerator or when transferring large distances, published in the prestigious scientific journal Physical Review A.
Quantum feedback allows to realize quantum teleportation.

The laws of quantum mechanics do not allow for teleportation of objects and people, but it is already possible to quantum teleport single photons and atoms.

Teleportation - is not fiction, say scientists from Moscow Physical-Technical Institute (MFTI). In the future we will be able to travel long distances without the use of physical force and simultaneously placed in two places, for example: Beijing and Moscow and in Siberia and the islands of New Zealand.

Not excluded teleportation conquest of cosmic space. It's all about the physical effects, so-called "Quantum entanglement." It is the ability of the quantum structures that are located at a distance from one another, remaining inseparable.

In classical physics, there is no such effect. Russian scientists have found a way to preserve the "quantum entanglement" in transmitting information at a considerable distance. It is, in fact, teleportation, explained one of the paper's authors, MFTI researcher Sergey Filipov:

- When we are in a ball
strings are ruffle, that discourage us. A physicists when they work with a complex situation are very happy, because in these conditions there is a correlation - what happens at one end of the thread tuft, is associated with what is happening on the other. These correlations can be forwarded anywhere. People displaced in such a manner to a certain distance, it will also be a correlation. Their behavior would be independent of one another. 

Initially, research physicists were related to the study of signal transmission over optical networks. That is, according to scientists, the so-called. "Secret quantum communications." In MFTI have found such an algorithm that allows the connection becomes even more secret. As for teleportation, it has become a "side" effect design. A scientist explains how with the help of the found effect can move things and people:

- Let's say you want to teleport humans. To do this, you do not distribute all of its atoms. You say, I have a 20 kg oxygen 10 kg carbon, a certain amount of hydrogen and takes the same amount at the other end. Next, you send information about their compounds and composition written in atoms. At the other end of the end of your materials make the same person.

In a sense, this "collection" is reminiscent of holography - image reconstruction of three-dimensional objects using a laser. The difference is that this is not just a special type of photography, but the creation of man, so to speak, of "flesh and blood", with all the characteristics and capabilities. Science has not yet reached such heights. Scientists have, for now, learn to teleport a photon. OPRAVI they are usually carriers of information sent. At the other end of the thread, experts have learned to create the same state micro object, which was located at the opposite end. Now we must learn to apply this principle in more complex systems. It's difficult because as the system grows, it dramatically increases the complexity of teleportation, says Sergey Filipov.

- Teloportovati two atoms, twice is harder than one, and three - eight times harder. If You would like to evaluate the degree of complexity of human teleportation, we should take into account that one of the ten to 24 atoms.

Friday, 11 July 2014

Scientists say - Tibetans are not humans

Scientists claim that Tibetans have no problem with the thin air and extreme cold because - they are not humans!

Rasmus Nielsen of the University of Berkeley, and his colleagues from the lab for DNA researches in China claim that Tibetans belong to the mysterious group "Denisovans" and not homo sapiens.

Mysterious Tibetans DNA was found in 2010 in Russia, and discovered it a hermit Denis, after whom they were named. Nielsen was investigating gene EPAS-1 and found that natural selection supports its survival and continuation of the species.

Scientists have long established that the Tibetans are functioning quite normally at high altitudes and to easily move along the "roof of the world", while ordinary people out there feel bad and tormented.

It was assumed that after thousands of years of genetic adaptation
Tibetans DNA is different, but I believe that they are "Denisovans" and have DNA different from that which is characteristic of homo sapiens.

Prior to Nielsen theory, American scientists from the University of Utah have found ten genes that allow Tibetans to survive with very low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Most other people, including climbers who are in "top form", it is always painful in these conditions, and there are often complications in the brain and lungs.

Two spotted genes are associated with hemoglobin - the part of blood that carries oxygen
through the body. Interestingly, the other residents of high landscape, don't have the properties of the Tibetan resistance, not even the inhabitants of the Andes.

The discovery that the Tibetans have a mysterious "
Denisovans DNA" was published in the journal "Nature". 

Sunday, 6 July 2014

Equations of State

Imagine a star twice as massive as the Sun, compressed to the size of a city. All that matter squeezed into a sphere about 15 miles wide. Such an object is known as a neutron star. The matter of a neutron star is so dense and its gravity is so strong that atoms cannot support themselves. Instead they collapse, with the electrons being squeezed into the nuclei until what remains is a mass of neutrons. Hence the name. The exact structure of a neutron star is still a bit of a mystery. At a broad level, they are just large balls of neutrons, but they have strong gravitational and magnetic fields that can affect their structure, and then there are the neutrons themselves. How do we understand “stuff” made out of neutrons, when what we see around us are made of atoms? The key is to determine its equation of state.

Friday, 4 July 2014

Was Nikola Tesla in contact with aliens?

When Tesla died his entire estate and all his property was seized by the Alien Property Custodian under the orders of the FBI - even though he was a US citizen!

Nikola Tesla was a Serbian American best known for his contribution to the design of the Alternating Current (AC) electricity supply system.

He was an inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist. He was very well known as a showman and it earned him the reputation of ‘mad scientist.’

Tesla once proclaimed that he received signals on his receiver while doing experiments in Colorado. He believed it could have come from Mars because they were substantially different from signals that he had previously observed from the noise of storms and the earth.

He was highly criticized when he revealed these ‘findings’.

When Tesla died on 7 January 1943 the FBI ordered the Alien Property Custodian to seize all his belongings even though he was a U.S. citizen. His entire estate was taken to a warehouse under the Office of Alien Property seal.

John G. Trump, a technical aide to the National Defense Research Committee was asked to analyse everything belonging to Tesla in the custody of the Office of Alien Property. After three days of thoroughly investigating everything he released a report that concluded that there was nothing that would be dangerous in unfriendly hands.

In 1952 Tesla's entire estate was shipped to Belgrade in 80 trunks marked N.T.

Tuesday, 1 July 2014

There's a mysterious radio signal known as the 'space roar' throughout the universe that no one can explain!

space roar
In 2009, researchers searching for signals from the first generation of stars were surprised when their instruments were overwhelmed by a radio signal stronger than anyone could have expected.

Known as the 'space roar,' no one can explain where it comes from, and the signal is six times stronger than the combined emission of all known radio sources in the universe!

Before you grab your tin foil hat, there's no message in these radio waves. They are waves just like the ones your radio receives to play music, but there's no music to be heard with this "roar." The team that discovered it described the sound as a "boom" or a "hiss" when translated into sound.

This mysterious signal is actually preventing the team from doing what they set out to do: find signals from the first generation of stars.

This is because the signal is just so strong that their instruments can't pick up those much weaker signals. It's like trying to hear someone whispering to you while an air horn is going off next to you.