Thursday, 5 January 2012

Ten epochal inventions in 2011

Drugs that prevent HIV transmission are highest scientific progress in 2011, according to a list of the famous magazine "Science". Each year the magazine makes "top ten" list, and all scientists aspire to be on it.


The first place is actually the work of an international study conducted on 1763 respondents, showed that, using new therapies in the early stages, almost completely prevents the transmission of virus from seropositive to their healthy partners.

This study, initiated 30 years after the AIDS epidemic emerged in the world, described as the biggest breakthrough so far in preventing this disease. Because antiretroviral drugs work almost like a condom - prevent the healthy heterosexual partners of infection in 96 percent of cases.

The study, called HPTN 052 was started in 2007. years among couples where one partner is infected. The participants were people from Botswana, Brazil, India, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Thailand, USA and Zimbabwe. In "Sajensovom" commentary says that the tests have "a profound impact on the future response to the AIDS epidemic." For the HIV infection per year worldwide 33 million people, and since it was only in 2009. year 1.8 million people died. Assessed and the results of the HPTN 052 study increases the hope that the AIDS epidemic to be stopped at least in the States, if not worldwide.

In addition to the antiviral therapy, the list of the American Association for the Advancement of Science issued "Sajens" there were nine other scientific discoveries that are, in their court, marked the 2011th year.


JAPANESE spacecraft "Hayabusa" managed to return to Earth after a three-year mission, with many ups and downs. On the way back to burn over Australia, but somehow managed to land the. This is the first mission is to bring an asteroid material for analysis. It is the asteroid Itokava, from which the dust particles flown. The results showed that asteroids change color of the solar wind.


Among the ten most important discoveries have been included DNA analysis of distant human ancestors. After studying from 2010. year, which showed that Europeans and Asians are inherited from two to six percent of Neanderthal DNA, a new analysis confirms that the development of the cave man's influence on the immune system of people nowadays. Discovery remains of Australopithecus sedibe in South Africa opened the question of whether he was perhaps the ancestor of our "homo" species.


Japanese researchers have discovered two photosynthetic protein fotosistem using plants to split water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is precisely this could lead to major progress in the use of clean energy.


Astronomers have discovered an ancient form of hydrogen that existed in the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang. U.S. astronomers have found two hydrogen clouds that are over two billion years to preserve its original composition from the period just after the Big Bang.

Another team of astronomers found the star, which in itself contains almost no metal, as were the earliest stars of the universe. This suggests that parts of the universe still survive despite the "cosmic violence."


Scientists have managed to discover the unusual features of microbes that "live" in the human stomach. Some of them prefer high protein diet, while others feels good vegetarian food.


Its place on the list of the most significant discoveries found in the world's first malaria vaccine RTS, S, which is still under investigation. First results of clinical studies show that this vaccine managed to almost halve the risk of illness in African children.


Are also pointed out an unusual discovery in the depths of space, including a system of six large planets orbiting stars called Kepler 11, 2000 light years away from Earth. On that list was the discovery of the giant gaseous bodies that are moving in the opposite direction from the stars of "parents". One of the unusual discovery was the existence of ten planets which move in orbits around stars nonexistent. And there is one planet that makes circles around the two stars.


INDUSTRIAL chemists have created several new types of artificial zeolite, which can save a lot of money and offers new possibilities in the Gas and oil industry. Valuable material for the purification of air and water, as in the process of cleaning detergents for washing clothes.


Removing old cells that could help improving the quality of life, according to research conducted by scientists in lab mice. They discovered that if you eliminate old cells from the body, we can postpone the creation of cataracts, and muscle weakness.

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