Tuesday, 3 January 2012

Why does the universe exist?

"Our present theory can be closer to the beginning of the so-called Planck time (10-43 or 10 to the minus 43 seconds). If it developed that will enable a breakthrough in this interval, it will bring us closer to answering the question - why is there a universe?

A likely and will allow us to look inside the "black hole".Will the universe end up in the "great frost" or "great survavanju"

Why is the universe, in general, there?
The question that people have always asked and which is still in the domain of religion and philosophy is whether the existence of the universe needs a coincidence or purpose. The great English philosopher Karl Popper concluded that something may be considered if there is a scientific way to prove that this is not true, it is not the case here. If you would from a scientifically based theory emerged necessity of the universe or the irrelevance of the need for it, this problem would be a completely different significance.
Our present theory can be closer to the beginning of the so-called Planck time (10 to minus 43 seconds). If it developed that will enable a breakthrough in this interval, it will bring us closer to answering the question - why is there a universe? A likely and will allow us to look inside the "black hole".

What is known for, and what is still beyond the reach of our knowledge?
Einstein's theory of relativity has enabled a completely new approach to cosmology and the universe as a whole has been the subject of science. On the basis of Einstein's equations, Alexander Friedmann in 1922. showed that the universe must be expanding and that, depending on the medium weight in it, this expansion to continue indefinitely, or will he begin to summarize to the start. Edwin Hubble in 1929, observing distant galaxies, confirmed that in the midst of a huge explosion and that the galaxies which are still rapidly moving away from us. Many did not accept that the universe is expanding. Sneering speaking of such a model, the great astronomer Fred Hoyle was asked: Is all this became like a "big bang", which is accepted as the origins of the name.
In the forties of last century was George Gamow, analyzing the model, concluded that the chemical composition of the universe, which contains about 90 percent hydrogen, can not provide current thermonuclear processes in stellar interior and this is confirmation that the temperature and density of the universe at the time of creation chemical elements during the so-called primordial nucleosynthesis, were such that the speed and number of photons in heavier nuclei broke faster than it created, and when that period ended on hydrogen remains the dominant chemical element.
Gamow was also predicted that the hydrogen in the universe cools, when the temperature drops to the point of neutralization, should go from neutral to ionized state. At this point, changing the conditions of light and the universe was opaque becomes transparent. Since this is happening amidst a tremendous release of energy, the son of the first traces of light which should exist today. He concluded that if the theory of "Big Bang" is correct, from all directions should come background radiation temperature which is estimated at a few Kelvin. This is George Gamow, in poperovskom sense, given the opportunity to prove that the theory is false, if this radiation does not exist. It was discovered by Arno and Robert Wilson Penzijas 1965th year, for which they received the Nobel Prize 1974th
Despite the enormous progress of astronomy, there are mysteries of the universe outside the scope of scientific knowledge. Apart from the reasons for its existence, for now the red line represents the so-called Planck time from the beginning of time is expressed with up to 10 ^ -43 seconds, in which science taps into the darkness.Tell us, briefly, what it looks like: what is, what it consists of, how far reaching?
When we talk about scale, it should be noted that this is the one observable. The largest telescopes allow astronomers to see galaxies that are 10 to 13 billion light years distant. But since the 13.7 billion years of its existence, the universe expanded, the diameter of opservabilnog is 2x13, 7 than about 46 billion years. Astronomers call this boundary particle horizon. Behind it cosmic inflation could happen in many places, creating a new universe inaccessible to us.
Alan Gut and Andrei Linde in 1981. this mechanism worked out a scenario that most cosmologists now considered most likely. According to him, our very small and dense universe is 10-35 seconds after the beginning entered a phase of exponential inflation, when the tiny fraction of a second razduvao to scale much larger than the observable universe. So she became completely flat and, despite all the powerful tools, not a sign of its curvature is still observed.
We now know only four percent of matter in the universe, the one visible, consisting of about 90 percent hydrogen, 10 percent helium and about one percent of other chemical elements. The rest is 73 per cent of the mysterious dark energy and 23 percent of the mysterious dark matter.

Does not sound that almost metaphysical created almost from nothing (ex nihilo)? May one such interpretation be considered credible?
What was once considered the "nothing" for a complete blank space - a vacuum, now has a completely different meaning. It has its own internal energy, which can be "family" particle and antiparticle, and during his childhood was far greater. In addition, some cosmological theories predict the existence of multiverse universe in which constantly come and go. For example, string theory proposes that moving the Dirichlet brane (the membrane) devetodimenzionalnom different dimensions in space, and one of them is our three-dimensional universe.

If a rapidly expanding, you can predict his ultimate destiny? Why the laws of physics finally exclude any condition?
If our universe look like a car, then it expands under the action of two causes. The force of gravity is the brake trying to slow him down and stop, and the dark energy of the gas pedal which tends to accelerate it. What will be its ultimate fate depends on, for now, unknown nature of dark energy. If she acts like a cosmological constant envisioned by Einstein - does not change with time, the fate of his nothingness. He will be influenced by razduvavati until ice and endless emptiness. Such a scenario astronomers call the "big freeze" or "heat death of the universe."
On the other hand, if the properties of dark energy changes over time, and is expanding its power is diluted and weak, the force of gravity will eventually determine the final fate of the universe. If she prevails, there will be a "big survavanja", a kind of inverted "Big Bang".

What it is "wicked forces" to all the slaughters? Will, after all, be dissolved in the tiniest bits of the component?
So it would come if the dark energy, as an internal vacuum energy, to be able to be received with the expansion of the universe, since it will zoom in and I vacuum. Then it would indeed become the "devil's power". How to be armed, seemed to slaughters galaxies, planets and, ultimately, atoms. For twenty billion years the universe would turn into a tremendously rare "soup of elementary particles."

Why do some cosmologists and astrophysicists invoke Einstein's constant, although he denied it quickly?
At a time when Albert Einstein worked on the theory of relativity, it was thought that the universe is infinite and uniformly filled with stars, that has always existed and that over eons of past and future did not change or will change. It seemed common sense, and he felt that its expansion or contraction, which follows from the equation, a gap that needs to be removed, and introduced the cosmological constant to balance. When Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving away, Einstein said that it was his biggest mistake.
However, 1998. the Sol Perlmutter, Brian Smith and Adam Rice discovered that our universe is not only begun, under the influence of gravity to slow the spread, but the five billion years ago and began to accelerate, for which the 2011th won the Nobel Prize. To describe the dark energy that accelerates the universe, which is analogous to a member of the cosmological constant was back in the equation, but with another meaning. For Einstein, it played a role in some types of energy inherent in space, which has spread to his razređivala. It was constant, and gave her name. Now add the member depends on the nature of dark energy: that it be increased with the expansion of the universe, diluted or remains constant.

For the mysterious particles that scientists reach out to clarify the origin of mass, if - as the senses - the search for Higsovim awry boson?
It is generally considered that the mass properties belonging essential nature of particles, but rather the theory suggests that it is a secondary property that arises from their interaction with the vacuum. He is not completely empty but contains Higsovo field that they, like the viscous environment, slow motion, and apparently gives them mass. But this theoretical assumption requires the existence of new particles holder of this field, Higsovog boson, which has yet to receive experimental confirmation. This is the missing piece fundamental theory of matter "standard model". Large Collider will certainly offer us something new. Or Higgs boson or other new exotic particles, may be carriers of previously unknown interactions and new physical phenomena.As explained by the "heart of darkness" of the entire cosmos - elusive dark matter and dark energy unfathomable?
Dark matter may be composed of a series of unknown particles, which may interact with new powers and a whole new universe are intertwined with ours. Among the major candidates are the hypothetical heavy particles VIMP, which is an abbreviation of the English title "weak interreagujuće massive particles." Are invisible and have virtually no impact on the ordinary particles. There are other candidate - neutralino, stable particles whose mass is several hundred times larger than protons or light particles, called axioms.
And for dark energy, except for vacuum energy, there are other exotic candidates. Among them, the particles in the form of string theory, which predicts this theory.

For reasons which are avoided, even condemned in advance, any attempt to thinking of events that preceded the "big bang"?
Sentences can only apply to non-scientific approaches. "Big Bang" is just the beginning stages of expanding our universe, and not the creation time. Cosmologists today are trying to peek in the time before the "Big Bang" and trying to come up where they might find its traces. Famous mathematicians Roger Penrose and Vahe Gurzadjan published in 2010. article which claimed that the data on background radiation from satellite vmap find concentric circles that are interpreted as a consequence of gravitational waves from the period before the "Big Bang", produced by fusion of giant "black holes". The work is subjected to criticism and doubts, but he attracted attention. And if it turns out that their conclusions are wrong, point out the way in how to look for irregularities background radiation scars of past eons.
Race to "peeped" behind the "Big Bang" began. It is therefore eagerly await the considered data from a European satellite Planck, launched the 2009th cosmic and new missions, which were obtained by increasing data accuracy and, perhaps, can provide a view behind the "Big Bang".Some people, from time to time, dared to study Einstein brought under suspicion.  

Do you believe that it is possible to speed exceeds the speed of light?
Dario Autijero associates caught in flagranti 23rd September 2011. neutrino that are moving faster than the speed of light permitted, the excess is impossible to ever accurately proveravanoj Einstein's theory of relativity. It is likely that sooner or later find it was a mistake. Especially as one of the fathers of neutrino astronomy, Košiba, grabbed neutrino simultaneously with photons, which are reported occurrence of Supernova 1987A, which means that they walked at a speed that allowed Einstein.  

What if the result is correct?
Neutrinos, which have exceeded the speed of the much higher energy. This may be a window to a new breakthrough in high energy physics, one step closer to a single theory of everything. Those who deal with strings believe that this result, if true, may be evidence of the existence of multiple dimensions. Namely, assume that there is a fourth type of neutrino can pass into another dimension and gets a short cut, it would appear that we exceeded the speed of light.
Dario Autijero suggested that the astronomers confirm or disprove this result. Most energetic explosions in the universe are gamma bursts, which in our group for astrophysical spectroscopy involved Port Č. Popovic and Sasa Simic. This energy is much larger than the neutrino-offenders and if they move even slightly higher speed of light from distant galaxies to thousands of years before arriving gamma glare. If you are detected simultaneously in Autijerovom experiment there is a serious problem.
So, the scientists greater than light speed is not a question of belief, but the experiment, theoretical considerations and modeling. Remember tahiona, hypothetical particles faster than light.

With what a picture of reality will face when the man looked to be in the remaining dimensions?
Other dimensions of string theory predicts, according to which there are nine spatial and one temporal dimension, and to eliminate some problems and added the eleventh. According to this theory, subatomic particles such as electrons and protons are open strings so I can not leave our universe. Just a hypothetical particle can. For example graviton, the owner or agent of the force of gravity. For instruments that we use, made of particles that are related to our three dimensions, others are invisible. For now we can only imagine if one day they will be achieved through the use graviton instruments or other exotic particles and allow us a whole new picture of reality.

Is the universe began with four or more dimensions?
Of course it depends on the theory, what we take to start and I think that the multiverse, the observable universe and our dam in string theory. An additional problem is that our theory only to reach the Planck time, and how many dimensions it has in it beyond our means.
It is interesting that there are assumptions that are in the beginning were only two spatial dimensions. But the best is that the two scientists proposed a method on how to test and that one of them, Dejan Stojkovic, from the University of Buffalo, and other Jonas Murejka from Los Angeles. They showed that, if the earliest start of only two spatial dimensions, appeared primordial gravitational waves before they disappeared, but left no traces. Is the universe at an early age had three, four, or eleven dimensions, according to string theory, for now an open question.

How far is thought by coming into the cosmic future?
The best opportunities for contemplative journey into the future cosmic further provides a model in which the universe is infinitely expanding. Fred Adams, who has ancestors among the Serbs, and Gregory Laflin, developed in 1997. The future of this fantastic universe to 10,100 years ago and described in his book. L. Kraus and R. Scherer in 2007. and 2008. went further: they presented what will take place in the universe, depending on whether protons decay, or remain stable. In the first case went up to 10,793 years ago when going to fall apart last pozitronijumi and remain a tremendously rare photons. If protons are stable, the evolution of the universe to both write "the end of cosmology and the return of a static universe," will last until 1056 years. Then the universe will be empty except for a few stray particles of iron dust, indestructible rest of the world that we knew.

Is there the slightest hope for survival of life in the final comprehensive wasteland cosmic "dark ages"?
Hope should never give up. Desolation "dark age" provides opportunities that are not in the script "survavanja large" or "large laceration." See how mankind has progressed during the cosmic scale is negligible. Before the eons reason to prepare for such conditions. If successful in the boundless desert to create yourself a little paradise, the danger of sudden destruction, such as gamma flashes or explosion of a nearby supernova, it will disappear.

Why is the universe, exactly, these qualities that led to the emergence of life?

Indeed, many of the constants in our universe seems to have been set by us, if only differed slightly, there would be. More George Gamow has shown that if the speed of light was higher, the faster the stars spent their energies and shorter lived. Taking into account that our sun should almost five billion years to develop the system in his mind, it is clear that the stars far short of our lives would not be. If, however, the speed of light was smaller, all processes in the order they proceeded slowly, so it would explode as a supernova, and new and so rasejavale through space life-giving chemical elements formed in the thermonuclear reactions in their bosom, such as calcium, phosphorus and carbon in our bodies - and we also would not be.
Other basic physical constants and the relative strength of the four fundamental forces are so finely tuned that even quite small changes have a major impact on the structure and chemistry of the universe and opportunities for the emergence and survival. Some wonder whether this is accidental. They find that all tricksy that we created, and it called anthropic principle.
But we exist because the universe as it is, otherwise there would be or other, or he would be no life. If we want to avoid such conclusions are that God created the universe for us and realized that the incredibly unlikely, it is reasonable to assume that the dice thrown several times.Is our universe just a little island in the multiverse gigantic, infinitely vast and varied?
The question on many worlds, raised more than Anaksimandera, now sets the new Copernican scientific manner and style of our relative position and role in the multiverse, reducing our entire universe to a trivial bubble in an infinite cosmic foam, which, unlike the others, It just came from a myriad of combinations of conditions that allowed our origins.

Will we one day civilization advanced enough to be able to make a new universe?
Legend of Soviet astronomy Kardašov Nikolai, now director of the Institute for Radio Astronomy in America, in his famous paper presented at a scientific congress of alien civilizations, divided them into three types. Type 1 controls the energy planet, Type 2 exploits the power of its sun, explore the planetary system and establishing colonies on planets around neighboring stars. Type 3 control the entire galaxy of space-time continuum and managed. Will there be a need to introduce civilization and type 4, which controls the universe and is able to create new, for now the thing of science fiction.

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