The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics says the observations of the cluster, which has shown a prodigious rate of star formation, may force astronomers to rethink how such colossal structures and galaxies that inhabit them evolve over time.
Known officially as SPT-CLJ2344-4243, the cluster has been nicknamed 'Phoenix', after the mythological bird that rose from the dead.
That's partly due to the constellation in which it lies. But Michael McDonald, a Hubble fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says the Phoenix was also a great way of thinking about the latest astronomical marvel.
"While galaxies at the centre of most clusters may have been dormant for billions of years, the central galaxy in this cluster seems to have come back to life with a new burst of star formation," says McDonald, the lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature.
Based on observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, the US National Science Foundation's South Pole Telescope and eight other observatories, researchers says the centre of the Phoenix cluster had been linked to the creation of about "740 solar masses" or stars a year.
By comparison, the Perseus cluster forms stars at a rate about 20 times slower than Phoenix.
"This is just an enormous rate," says Marie Machacek, an astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. She says huge clusters like Phoenix are thought to host thousands of galaxies and there was still a lot to learn about what goes on within them.
Supermassive black holes in the central galaxy of a cluster have long been associated with low observed star formation rates, as they pump energy into the system and prevent the cooling of gases needed for the creation of stars.
But researchers say the "massive starburst" seen in Phoenix, as it gave birth to about two stars per day, suggests that its central galaxy's black hole had failed to interfere with an extremely strong cooling flow.
"Stars are forming in the Phoenix cluster at the highest rate ever observed for the middle of a galaxy cluster," according to a Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics press release.
"The object also is the most powerful producer of x-rays of any known cluster and among the most massive. The data also suggest the rate of hot gas cooling in the central regions of the cluster are the largest ever observed."