Friday, 4 November 2011

Table of antimatter

It turns out that in the first fractions of a second occurrence of the cosmos was less fortunate - the matter prevailed, although at the outset was in equal amounts. In two recent discoveries scientists have for the hair closer to the door anti world. What is behind?

What kind of periodic table of elements, which was invented by a brilliant Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, hung on the wall Bizare classroom?

(Bizaro, in every respect, contrary to Superman, among other things, that he enjoys inflicting pain.)

Probably antiperiod table, with antimatter.

  Antimatter mirror image of ordinary matter, which is made up of everything we see and touch. Instead of negatively charged electrons, consists of a positively charged positron. In the same way, our positively charged protons transforms the negative antiprotons. There are also neutral antineutron.

In the first few turbulent fraction of a second birth of the cosmos 13.7 billion years ago ("Big Bang"), had both matter and antimatter. Where the latter is extinct?

The laws of nature (physically) so that in some characteristics of matter and antimatter are different, now it is assumed that these differences were crucial to the future destiny of both. In one of two existing, (attempted) explanation - matter is, simply, penetrated into the area above the blast, which formed the space and time of our universe. It turns out that the antimatter that was unsuccessful.

"Dance of Death" in a flash
Generally accepted theory, the standard model that describes the finest ingredients and the ruling forces in the cosmos, teaches that antimatter is composed of primary (elementary) antiparticle such matter consists of particles.
Each particle is decorated properties (mass, charge, spin, or rotation ...) which make it different from others. And for each there is a corresponding antiparticle, which have some features (like mass or spin) identical, while others (such as electric charge or magnetic moment) the opposite. The most famous example of the electron and positron, which are the reverse charge and magnetic moment, and other characteristics the same.
Matter and antimatter in a flash play "Dance of Death", canceling each other, with the release of enormous energy in the form of gamma radiation and the like. The existence of antiparticles and antimatter first in 1928. noted English scientist Paul Dirac, later Nobel Laureate, imagining positively charged electron, or positron, which is confirmed by experiments in four years.
If particulate matter that comes into contact with antiparticles - say, an electron positron touches - cancel each other (annihilation) of tremendous release of energy.
Since 1955. , when the accelerators ("particle collider") observed antiproton and antineutron, to this day is observed number of antiparticles, and the first core samples antimatter (antiproton antineutron with welded) were observed only decades later. The European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) 1995. have finally filled the void first (dice) in antiperiod table, creating antiatom - 
anti hydrogen, one positron which circle around a lone antiprotons. (antisimbol  anti hydrogen H with a dash above).
In about an ordinary hydrogen protons, which represents the atomic nucleus, an electron orbits, and in some antiprotons,
anti hydrogen, shapes antielectron (positron).
As all manner of consolidating (combining) tiniest particulate matter generated in the same manner arises from antiparticle antimatter. Consistent
anti hydrogen atom can, for example, occur by binding of positrons to antiproton, with characteristics that should be the same as ordinary hydrogen. Indeed, in antiproton collisions with a jet of xenon atoms appeared anti hydrogen atom.
To obtain antimatter, otherwise, it is unlikely a lot of energy, because it lasts a very short time in this lush part of the universe matter. This is an extremely complex undertaking.
Two recent discoveries, however, supported the hopes that one day will be filled vacancies in antiperiod table.
Dan Brown and terrorists
In March, the International Research Fellowship at the National labs Brukheven (USA) created the first nucleus antihelijuma-4, helium counterparts (number two in Mendeljejev table) from our world. Previously made antihelijum-3, but antihelijum-4 paired more antimatter than ever spotted in one place.

                                                     Hydrogen                        Anti hydrogen

This is additional evidence that antimatter can be linked into stable clusters, as it does matter. It was assumed, but this has not been confirmed.
It is equally important as scientists at CERN invented the process in late April anti hydrogen capture. First they get anti hydrogen at extremely high temperatures, and then a fraction of a second antiatome kept in an unusual "electromagnetic cage", before they disappeared.
The new method means that antimatter has cooled, making it easy to capture, and then inserted into unusual store, which lasted almost 17 minutes. This approach, directed to consider, can deepen our understanding of the creation of antimatter. (Earth's gravity may refuse anti hydrogen atoms, which is why they break down immediately.)
The resurrection of the next antielement - anti lithium will be waiting for years. No one knows how long. Speed ​​the creation of antimatter falling, even 1,000 times, with each antiproton or antineutron. Artificially make anti lithium (three and three antiproton antineutron) - about a million times harder than helium-4. And for now, probably, beyond the technological reach of existing equipment. Is there another path?
Physicists studying antimatter in part to figure out one of most completest puzzles. The "big bang", it is assumed, is created equal amounts of matter and antimatter and eons long ago canceled. Hence it seems to matter around in abundance, no one knows why.
Maybe a terrible explosion has not delivered one and the other in equal amounts or has removed a huge blob of matter and antimatter in different directions? In this case, all the antimatter in galaxies far from us.
Study anti hydrogen and anti helium antielement will help find the remote vastness of the cosmic, the arcane anti stars. If there is, consists of anti helium, anti carbon, anti gold. The same seems to have originated anti beings, based on the periodic table anti chemistry antielement.
Far away, Bizaro certainly has its eternal rival - Antisupermena.
Physicists, you may have noticed, struggling to keep their antiparticles as long as the electromagnetic captivity, separated from ordinary matter. Why? They are hoping that the door ajar anti world. The properties of antimatter, otherwise, tested under conditions that do not remotely resemble the descriptions in the novel by Dan Brown's "Angels & Demons". (Remember the conspirators who try to steal a mysterious anti-matter.) Addition, and very expensive: for gram you spend $ 25 billion! So little antimatter is created that the terrorists would not use. We know that anti world not yet discovered.

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