Friday, 13 May 2011

Forgetting in a flash

German scientists (Institute of the Max Planck in Göttingen) was first calculated that for approximately one second per excited nerve cell vanish for ever bit of information (messages) from human brain! Is assumed to be far removed obstacles to the fundamental understanding of the 'nerve recording in cerebral cortex brain to hand. Our ancestors knew how to quickly forget (and slow remember)?

Scientists from the Institute for the dynamics of self-organization and the Max Planck at the University of Göttingen (Germany), which was recently measured, they were surprised by speed of sensory stimuli from the deletion of the cerebral cortex. Flow of electrochemical messages (signals) in the brain is tremendously confusing (chaotic).

Despite this, the first time calculate during which disappears data (information) is stored in a kind of patterns of neural networks. Roughly one bit per excited nerve cell in seconds, to express technological terms, it is surprisingly fast. His remark at the end of last year revealed in the respected journal of physical Review during leters.

Two millennia, in fact, he was considered to nerve passes through the intangible and invisible spirit animal and transmits information regarding the status and activities of all parts of our body. It was not until the mid-19th century physicists and physiologists have found that in parallel to perform in the form of electrical pulses, and at the end of the century that they appear as the potential (so-called action potential) in cells called neurons.

Whirl of nerves

Nervous system as a whole is made up of nerve and specific cells that surround them and protect, each functional unit with others in the human brain makes a huge network. The grounds are similar to other cells - are shrouded semi-permeable membrane (membrane), and the body is a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm.

Nerves, however, have special extensions: dendrites and axons. First receive a message, the other is transmitted neighbors in the form of electrical signals. Connections between neurons is achieved through so-called. synapses, small extensions at the ends of dendrites and axons, in which the transmission of impulses realized as an electrochemical process. The speed is different for different neurons - from 0.6 to 120 meters per second.

The brain remembers (encoded) in the form of electrical changes (pulse) that can be displayed on the graph line with sudden changes (spikes). Each is normally endowed with about one hundred billion nerve connected to the same time and receive and transmit (receiver and transmitter), and in particular conditions only passes its signal. Giant whirl, then, is overwhelmed and many arrive transmiting messages at all times.

Every bit of information processed is creating its own pattern of connections, which indicates that the neuron and when included in the mailing. In other words, the pattern is some kind of record of events (protocol) that tracks changes in the flow of information between nerve cells.

Nerve recording

How reliable is this image? Slight variations in the "neural chat" may give rise to different forms, like the interference matter by an individual in one's conversation. The final lesson is, therefore, completely reversed. In science such a situation is called chaos or chaos, for this reason it is not possible in the longer term to predict how the phenomena take place (schedule), as opposed not chaotic (aka stable) events in the brain where the errors are much rarer.

Even more: as a result of small errors remembered will be gradually lost.

The behavior of individual nerve little or nothing can act on a comprehensive picture of events. The latest findings from Göttingen revealed that the events in the cerebral cortex, the main center of mergers and switching, largely haphazard. Researchers in their calculations for the first time used a credible performances (models) neurons, which was essential. It was shown that the nerves involved when the stimulus (potential) exceeded the critical value. And that was the only way to accurately capture when the nerve cells become active.

Previous studies have not taken into consideration when and under what conditions demonstrated the culmination of nerve excitation (divert spike). Gottingen scientists have finally established a basis on which they calculated the rate of forgetting rate, which they say is surprisingly large. Approximately one bit per second information disappears forever involved in a neural cell. It turns out to vanish for the same time such a large segment of the brain for what is received through the senses! How quickly arrived so quickly evaporated.

Is assumed to be far removed obstacles to the fundamental understanding of the 'nervous writing "in the cerebral cortex which, by all accounts, primarily adapted to the processing of short observations from the outside world.

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Deletion of life

Bit is the smallest unit of information in computer science, and represents the amount necessary to distinguish two mutually exclusive states, often presented as "units" (1) and "zero" (0), yes or no, true or false, or not there is voltage, etc. .

It is also used as the name of the digits in the binary numeral system (base 2 system). The word was first used 1948th The work of Claude Shannon (who said that the word comes from John Takiji) and was created in early conclusion of the English word "binary" and the end of the word "figure" or "units" in English (or binary digit binary unit).

How much data is deleted during the average human life (70 years) in each nerve each cell and all together, and there are - as assumed - about a hundred billion in the brain, as the trees in the Amazon rainforest?

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